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Sources (264 results)

  • Period: 1700 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of entertainers and actors. Theatrical performances were banned under rule of Oliver Cromwell but Charles II, on his restoration in 1660, authorised the reopening of theatres. Following this many taverns and pleasure gardens began offering variety shows and by the 1830s music hall began appearing. Music hall and its stars became hugely popular but with the emergence of cinema, ... more

  • Period: 1927 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of adopted children registered in the Adopted Children's Register which was established in England and Wales on January 1st 1927, in Scotland in 1930, in Northern Ireland in 1931 and in the Republic of Ireland in 1953. The register contains details of all adoptions legally authorised by a court in England and Wales and is only held by the General Register Office and not by Local ... more

  • Period: 1265 - 1900

    Summary

    Records of apprenticeship agreements (indentures) made between a master and apprentice. The master entered into a legal agreement to offer the apprentice training in his trade for a set amount of years and for a sum of money. Two copies of the indenture were produced for each party. The majority of surviving records are from registers kept by the Board of Stamps and Taxes (Inland Revenue) ... more

  • Period: 1601 - 1844

    Summary

    Details of employment agreements between an apprentice and a master, overseen by the parish authorities. Normally only poorer children were apprenticed and are often referred to as pauper apprenticeships. The Poor Relief Act of 1601 (Old Poor Law) allowed the parish officials to bind a child to a master. Originally children could be apprenticed from the age of seven but in the early 19th century ... more

  • Period: 1713 - 1914

    Summary

    Application for pension benefits from an officer's widow or her children. The records consist of bundles of documents in support of the widows claim for pension payments. The bundles are organised and indexed alphabetically by the surname of the officer and cover the years from 1755 to 1908 and can be found in series WO 42 held at The National Archives. A further series of records deal ... more

  • Period: 1740 - Onwards

    Summary

    Officer records of commissions published in the official Army Lists and the unofficial Hart's Army List (1839-1915), produced by Lieutenant H.G. Hart. The official Army List was first published in 1740 and annually from 1754 to 1878 and then quarterly from 1879 to 1922. The Army List was indexed by name from 1766 and arranged by regiment. Hart's List has an advantage over the official list in ... more

  • Period: 1797 - 1910

    Summary

    Listing of men discharged due to wounds or killed in action. The records found in the series held at The National Archives include the Muster Master List General's Index of Casualties covering 1797 to 1817 which includes discharges due to wounds, death, illness, desertion, taken prisoner of war or simply transferred to another battalion or regiment. The lists are arranged by regiment. Also ... more

  • Period: 1761 - 1924

    Summary

    Chaplain's Returns record births, baptisms, marriages and deaths and burials at stations overseas by the Army Chaplains' Department between 1796 and 1880. The name of the regiment served with does not appear on the index but does on the certificate. The registers are available online at findmypast.co.uk . The certificate will provide the name of soldier and regiment and the date and place ... more

  • Period: 1793 - 1870

    Summary

    Documents relating to the purchase and sale of commissions (including Ireland from 1801 to 1859) as vetted by the office of the Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C). The office was closed in 1870 following the abolition of the system of buying commissions under the Cardwell Reforms . The papers also contains appointments, promotions and resignations. Establishing dates of commissions and promotions is ... more

  • Period: 1796 - 1963

    Summary

    Courts Martial Records contain the records of those tried and disciplined by the army courts. The Deserter Registers detail soldiers who deserted who are also listed in the Police Gazette. The registers are found in TNA series WO 25 covering 1799-1852, with the Police Gazette available at TNA covering 1828-1845. The Regimental Description Books provide a physical description of ... more

  • Period: 1713 - 1871

    Summary

    Records relating to the retaining fee paid to officers, who up to 1871 were not entitled to a pension. Although the records do not provide much on the officer's career, they do at least show the date he retired from the army and also state the officer's location at the time the payments were made. A potential source of regular army officer information can be found in the Graduation Lists ... more

  • Period: 1914 - 1918

    Summary

    Details of the medals and those awarded a campaign medal whether officer or other rank. For WWI the rolls include most of those who saw active service overseas. The details were recorded on rolls and from the rolls a summary Medal Index Card was created for each person by the Army Medal Office. There were three types medals awarded to those serving in the army namely , campaign , gallantry ... more

  • Period: 1854 - 1918

    Summary

    Details of medals awarded for acts of gallantry and heroism. Almost all awards were published in the official London Gazette. The National Archives holds some quarterly indexes to the Gazette with gallantry medal name indexes. The Gazette entry only occasionally provides the citation which describes the reasons for the award. Citations are more likely to be found in The National Archives files, ... more

  • Period: 1713 - 1913

    Summary

    Record of enlistment date, movements and discharge date of all soldiers and officers and not just those discharged to pension. The Rolls were taken each month or quarter but the name of the regiment must be known as a starting point of research. The musters show a record of the presence of each soldier at a particular unit and record the reasons for a soldier's absence such as illness or serving ... more

  • Period: 1914 - 1920

    Summary

    Officer service records reconstructed from War Office correspondence files of pre-WWI regular commissioned army officers. The files also relate to those given a temporary commission or were commissioned into the Special Reserve of Officers. All official records were destroyed by enemy action during WWII and even these surviving records are not complete. The records includes officers from the ... more

  • Period: 1715 - 1920

    Summary

    Medical pension records relating to soldiers injured or invalided on service and awarded an out-pension following the establishment of the Royal Hospital Kilmainham in Dublin and the Royal Hospital Chelsea . They cover the years from 1715 to 1913. Service pension records relating to pensions awarded to soldiers for length of service from the Royal Hospital Kilmainham in Dublin and ... more

  • Period: 1715 - 1883

    Summary

    Pension Returns detail out-pension payments paid by the Chelsea and Greenwich Royal Hospitals as well as records of annual mortality returns. The returns are arranged by districts covering the UK, Channel Islands, India, other colonies and some foreign stations as well as the East India Company and mercantile mariners. The returns are useful as a way of tracing changes of address and to ... more

  • Period: 1914 - 1921

    Summary

    Registers of approximately 750,000 British soldiers killed in WWI. Similar indexes are available for the Boer War and WWII. The location and cause of death may appear vague. Death certificates for soldiers who died in hospital in France or Belgium are in series RG 35/45 -69, arranged alphabetically. WO 35/69 lists men wounded or killed during the Easter Rising in Dublin in 1916. For the place ... more

  • Period: 1764 - 1913

    Summary

    Regimental returns containing information on officers and arranged by regiment. No records of service of the commissioned officers who were appointed before 1793 have survived. Another potential source of regular army officer information can be found in the Graduation Lists which run from 1901 to 1914 which are available in the open reading room at The National Archives. These lists are ... more

  • Period: 1760 - 1913

    Summary

    Records of soldiers (not officers) who served and survived to receive a pension either as an in-pensioner or out-pensioner of the Royal Hospital Chelsea . The in-pensioners were and still are known as the ‘Chelsea Pensioners’. The records consists of attestation forms (papers signed when joining up to serve) and discharge forms (papers signed when leaving a regiment), a summary of ... more

  • Period: 1914 - 1920

    Summary

    Pension records of ordinary rank soldiers and non-commissioned officers, discharged from the army from sickness or injury, who claimed disability pensions. Documents could include attestation forms, medical history forms, casualty forms, disability statements, regimental conduct sheets, discharge details and medal awards. About two thirds of WWI soldier service records were destroyed by enemy ... more

  • Period: 1914 - 1920

    Summary

    Service records of those that served in WWI comprising of attestation papers, discharge papers, medical records and casualty forms. The records include those killed in action and those discharged without pension and could include soldiers who enlisted before 1914. About two thirds of the records were destroyed by enemy action in WWII. Knowing which regiment a man served in is of great ... more

  • Period: 1348 - 1971

    Summary

    Records of criminal and civil cases tried before professional judges held twice yearly in each county. The Courts Act of 1971 replaced the Assizes with Crown Courts, although in Liverpool and Manchester the Assizes closed down in 1956. Cases heard at the Assizes included serious offences such as treason, riot, murder and burglary with violence which together were referred to as felonies. ... more

  • Period: 1696 - 1697

    Summary

    Records from a pledge of loyalty (Solemn Association) to the king and support of the succession signed by all holders of public office such as MPs, freeman, military and civil officers of the crown, gentry. The clergy also signed the pledge but were recorded in separate rolls. The need for a pledge of loyalty arose following an assassination attempt by Catholic Jacobites on William III in 1695. ... more

  • Period: 1788 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records generated from those leaving the UK for Australia. The majority of people who migrated did so either voluntarily or were forced against their will because of religious persecution or for economic reasons. Others were encouraged/assisted to move from their country of origin. Australia was discovered by the Dutch in the 1660s and was claimed for the British Crown in 1770. The family ... more

  • Period: 1710 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of those declared bankrupt. Prior to 1869 an insolvent debtor could be sent to a debtors prison or separate quarters in a local prison until the debts were cleared or a petition for release was accepted. An insolvent debtor could remain in prison indefinitely based on the creditor having the final decision or if the debts remained uncleared, whilst bankrupt debtors, mainly traders or ... more

  • Period: 1612 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records and registers of birth/baptism, marriage and death/burial records from various Baptist congregations. The Baptism movement was founded in Amsterdam in 1611 by John Smyth a Puritan exile from Britain. A follower called Thomas Helwys came to London in 1612 and founded the first General Baptist church in England. General Baptist adherents shunned infant baptism and rejected the doctrine of ... more

  • Period: 1576 - 1834

    Summary

    Records generated from a number of documents relating to the issue of illegitimacy and bastardy cases mostly trying to determine the name of the bastard child’s father. A child born to unmarried parents was considered by law to be illegitimate. The range of documents, mostly deposited in the parish chest, include the Bastardy Examination , Bastardy Warrants And Summons , Bastardy ... more

  • Period: 1598 - 1860

    Summary

    The system of parish registration of baptisms, marriages and burials in England began in 1538. The order to keep the registers was largely ignored until a decree in 1597 which compelled the parish authorities to comply with the law. Unlike Scotland, the English authorities also decreed that transcribed copies of the registers should be sent annually to the bishop's diocesan registry. The copies ... more

  • Period: 1500 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records dealing with the legal status of a company such as annual returns and other records dealing with daily operations such as staff records, wage books, memos and company minutes. Also look for mentions of a company in the records of business associations and trade groups and consult newspaper articles and the trade press for mentions of a company. Look for sources such maps , photos , ... more

  • Period: 1350 - 1971

    Summary

    Names of prisoners held in county prisons awaiting trial at Quarter Sessions and Assizes outside London. Some calendars are pre-trial noting the name of the prisoner and the offence and others post-trial noting the verdict and sentence. Many cases were referred to the Quarter Sessions or Assizes by a magistrate sitting at the lower Petty Session Courts. As the Home Office became more ... more

  • Period: 1600 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records generated from those leaving the UK for the former dominion of Canada. The majority of people who migrated did so either voluntarily or were forced against their will because of religious persecution or for economic reasons. Others were encouraged/assisted to move from their country of origin. Canada had been colonised by Britain and France from the 16th century, however Britain gained ... more

  • Period: 1820 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records, mainly burial registers, relating to those buried in purpose-built cemeteries. New burial grounds were desperately needed, especially in urban areas, after churchyards were unable to cope with the increase in demand for space. Most commenced operations from the mid-19th century. Before the mid 19th century most cemeteries were run as a private business and others by local ... more

  • Period: 1841 - 1911

    Summary

    Records form the population count and social data taken every ten years. The census is essentially a record of all individuals at a particular location on census day, whether a residential dwelling or an institution. The procedure for taking the census involved the enumerator delivering a form or schedule to the head of household with areas divided into enumeration districts. The person ... more

  • Period: 1821 - 1911

    Summary

    Records form the population count and social data taken every ten years. The census is essentially a record of all individuals at a particular location on census day, whether a residential dwelling or an institution. The census lists all residents by townland (a subdivision of a parish) in rural areas and by streets in urban areas. Taking a census began in 1821 and thereafter every ten years. ... more

  • Period: 1841 - 1911

    Summary

    Records form the population count and social data taken every ten years. The census is essentially a record of all individuals at a particular location on census day, whether a residential dwelling or an institution. The procedure for taking Scottish censuses and the format of the returns is very nearly identical to that of the English and Welsh versions. The procedure for taking the census ... more

  • Period: 1199 - 1517

    Summary

    Records from royal and private charters which were legal documents recording a variety of grants of lands, honours and privileges. The areas covered charters included the granting of rights to lands, markets liberties, privileges, immunities, exemptions and peerages and the creation of private corporations including towns and cities. Grants of lands and conveyances are of most interest to family ... more

  • Period: 1300 - 1850

    Summary

    Records relating to the varied work of church courts, including areas such as the exclusive jurisdiction over probate matters , marriage issues such as marriage licences , separation and legitimacy, licences for certain professions, church administration, recusancy (Roman Catholics) or non-attendance at church (nonconformists), rates and tithes arrears. The courts also ruled on the 'moral' ... more

  • Period: 1127 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records from the churchwarden accounts showing the money paid out for a variety of goods and services. The records also note expenditure on a wide range of matters such as road repairs, vermin control and the purchase of communion wine. The accounts will show details of payments to individual named craftsmen such as carpenters, glaziers, carpenters, decorators and stonemasons for the upkeep of ... more

  • Period: 1854 - 1960

    Summary

    Registers of British and foreign passengers who were born, married or died at sea on British registered vessels or vessels registered in the colonies. The requirement to register these events resulted from the introduction of civil registration in 1837 in England and Wales but did not extend to events that occurred on foreign soil. The registers also included British subjects travelling on ... more

  • Period: 1837 - Onwards

    Summary

    Certificates and indexes of civil registered births introduced after the passing of the Births and Deaths Registration Act of 1836. Civil registration was introduced from 1 July 1837 which meant that all births, marriages and deaths had to be reported to the register office in the district where the event took place. The original registration districts were usually based on the poor law union ... more

  • Period: 1864 - Onwards

    Summary

    Certificates and indexes of civil registered births. Up to the end of 1877 the indexes were arranged alphabetically, by year but from 1878 onwards each year was divided into quarters. The registration districts were based on the poor law union divisions. The local districts forwarded their returns to the General Register Office in Dublin and Belfast. The General Register Office is the ... more

  • Period: 1837 - Onwards

    Summary

    Certificates and indexes of civil registered deaths introduced after the passing of the Births and Deaths Registration Act of 1836. Civil registration was introduced from 1 July 1837 which meant that all births, marriages and deaths had to be reported to the register office in the district where the event took place. The original registration districts were usually based on the poor law union ... more

  • Period: 1864 - Onwards

    Summary

    Certificates and indexes of civil registered births. Up to the end of 1877 the indexes were arranged alphabetically, by year but from 1878 onwards each year was divided into quarters. The registration districts were based on the poor law union divisions. The local districts forwarded their returns to the General Register Office in Dublin and Belfast. The General Register Office is the ... more

  • Period: 1837 - Onwards

    Summary

    Certificates and indexes of civil registered marriages introduced after the passing of the Marriage Act of 1836. Civil registration was introduced from 1 July 1837 which meant that all births, marriages and deaths had to be reported to the register office in the district where the event took place. Under the new arrangements, a couple could marry in a Church of England church, or at a ... more

  • Period: 1864 - Onwards

    Summary

    Certificates and indexes of civil registered births. Up to the end of 1877 the indexes were arranged alphabetically, by year but from 1878 onwards each year was divided into quarters. The registration districts were based on the poor law union divisions. The local districts forwarded their returns to the General Register Office in Dublin and Belfast. The General Register Office is the ... more

  • Period: 1700 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of those that worked for the civil service in the United Kingdom as Crown employees. Those employed as civil servants support the work of government departments and do not include public sector employees such as local government staff, teachers, NHS staff or police officers. A useful source of information on civil servants is the Civil Service Evidence of Age records, 1752-1948. Those ... more

  • Period: 1100 - Onwards

    Summary

    Clans consisted of communities, especially from the Highlands and Borders, with a shared surname and possibly ancestry. The word clan is Gaelic in origin and means 'children'. The clan chief headed the clan and ruled the lands appropriated by the chief. Others pledged loyalty or fealty to the head who, in return, offered his protection. Therefore, it is wrong to assume that a person with a ... more

  • Period: 1500 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of those that followed a career as a clergyman in the Scottish and English churches. Resources include biographies and personal histories as well as certificates of ordination. The church courts dealt with the ordination of clergy and their appointments to serve in a particular parish, although the right to appoint clergy was not the sole responsibility of the bishop. The hierarchical ... more

  • Period: 1204 - 1903

    Summary

    Records of correspondence known as Letters Close which gave orders and instructions to royal officials and subjects, issued by the Court of Chancery . The original Letter was sealed and folded and could not be opened before breaking the seal and are therefore referred to as Letters Close, although the information was not considered confidential. The Letters were later copied onto the rolls. ... more

  • Period: 1750 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of those involved employed in the extraction of coal. Modern coalmining began from the early 18th century with coal miners frequently changing places of work. After WWII, the coal industry was nationalised with the establishment of the National Coal Board in 1946. In 1987, it was renamed as the British Coal Corporation and later its assets were privatised. In 1994, the newly ... more

  • Period: 1814 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of the coastguards formed in 1822 from a merger of the Revenue Cruisers, the Riding Officers and the Preventative Water Guard. Since then, the service has been administered by various government departments including the Board of Trade, the Admiralty and the Board of Customs. Therefore the records are scattered amongst the various series at The National Archives covering these ... more

  • Period: 1582 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records and registers of birth/baptism, marriage and death/burial records from Congregational and Independent congregations. The Protestant Congregational movement began in 1582 in England during the Puritan reformation. Originally known as Independents or Separatists the movement took its religious guidance from Robert Brown . Congregationalists believe that each congregation derives its ... more

  • Period: 1300 - 1856

    Summary

    Records from the parish constable. The position originated from the manorial courts and later became a fixture of the parish structure following the demise of the manorial system of governance. The constable was voted in by the parish ratepayers from amongst fellow ratepayers under the auspices of the parish vestry. Although by the early 17th century, the manor court had ceased to exercise ... more

  • Period: 1716 - Onwards

    Summary

    Birth, marriage and death registers of British subjects registered with British Consuls from the year 1849 and High Commissions in foreign and commonwealth countries. Registering an event with the British authorities was entirely voluntary following registration with the local authorities. Births, marriages and deaths were also recorded by Anglican chaplaincies overseas which were then sent ... more

  • Period: 1194 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of inquests carried out by the coroner in England and Wales where a sudden, accidental, suspicious or unnatural death occurred, possibly involving suicides or poisoning. Deaths in prisons were also investigated as were treasure trove finds. The records will contain the verdict and possibly witness statements or depositions. The jury originally consisted of between 12 and 24 people but ... more

  • Period: 1600 - Onwards

    Summary

    Written political, religious and social histories of counties, arranged by towns and parishes. These works often include the topography of the area. Following the 1066 Norman invasion, the county structure was established largely based on the former Anglo-Saxon shire. Technically a county means the same as a shire with a shire described as the area around a fortified castle and administered by a ... more

  • Period: 1280 - 1922

    Summary

    Manorial court rolls relate to two type of courts, one the Court Leet and the other the Court Baron. Each had separate jurisdiction, governing distinct areas life on the manor. However, the lines of jurisdiction blurred over the years and often one court sitting would deal with matters previously dealt with by the separate courts. The records originate from the assembly of freehold and copyhold ... more

  • Period: 1280 - 1842

    Summary

    Manorial court rolls relate to two type of courts, one the Court Leet and the other the Court Baron. Each had separate jurisdiction, governing distinct areas life on the manor. However, the lines of jurisdiction blurred over the years and often one court sitting would deal with matters previously dealt with by the separate courts. Eventually, with the growth in power of the church authorities ... more

  • Period: 1348 - 1873

    Summary

    Records of civil disputes (suits) heard in equity courts, such as the Chancery and Exchequer Courts and the Court of Requests and Court of Star Chamber. The equity courts competed with the common or customary law courts which many thought failed to adjudicate in a fair and flexible manner. The court also heard some common law cases. The types of documents of relevance to the genealogist ... more

  • Period: 1194 - 1880

    Summary

    Records from one of the common-law courts that heard civil disputes (actions) between individuals principally about land or property, real estate and debt. The court held jurisdiction over almost all civil litigation and also supervised local and manorial courts. The proceedings were recorded on Plea Rolls or De Banco Rolls and included the writ, pleadings, verdict, and judgment of each civil ... more

  • Period: 1558 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records from the Court of Exchequer which was originally a common law court but developed into an equity court from the 1640s. The court mainly dealt with disputes over land titles, manorial rights, bonds, debts and wills. Some common law cases were heard by the court. Other equity courts included the Chancery, the Court of Requests and the Court of Star Chamber. The court's equity ... more

  • Period: 1268 - 1875

    Summary

    Records from the  highest court of common law which dealt with criminal cases and civil suits, holding jurisdiction over other common law courts until 1830. The legal system that developed in medieval Britain centred around the principals of common law dominated by the royal courts, known as the King's or Royal Court otherwise referred to as the Curia Regis. In the 12th century the ... more

  • Period: 1540 - 1660

    Summary

    Records dealing with the position of the king as a feudal lord. The court was established by Henry VIII to administer the monarch's feudal dues arising from land and property inheritance. The court performed two main revenue raisings functions for the king. Firstly the court administered the monarch's feudal dues which arose following the death of a Tenant-in-Chief (tenants who held land ... more

  • Period: 1150 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records generated from the various courts that have operated or are operating in Scotland. The legal system in Scotland differs to that in operation in England and Wales. Under Scottish law (Scots law) the entire legal process including the institutions is different in character to England. Scots law had a number of elements. Firstly , feudal dealing with land and immoveables and inheritance ... more

  • Period: 1797 - 1906

    Summary

    Petitions made by convicted persons seeking the revocation or reduction of their sentences. The outcomes were kept in criminal entry books. They were granted freely or on condition of transportation and based on age and dependent relatives. Before 1784 pardons are contained in state papers often found in TNA series SP 37 . The judges reports are especially useful ( HO 6 and HO 47 ). After ... more

  • Period: 1791 - 1892

    Summary

    Official Home Office registers arranged in alphabetical order for each county naming those charged with serious crimes and indictable offences. The registers state whether or not the person was found guilty. The registers are arranged annually and then alphabetically by county. Also check census returns for names of those in prison and local and national newspapers for case reports. In ... more

  • Period: 1796 - 1903

    Summary

    Records from a tax levied on the personal and real estate of the deceased. The records provide a summary or abstract of a will and show how the will was distributed and crucially note the relationship of each beneficiary. The authorities used the documents to calculate death duty taxes. The death duty registers cover three separate but related taxes, Legacy Duty (from 1796), Succession Duty ... more

  • Period: 1400 - 1950

    Summary

    Records of those who became a British subject by Letters of Denization which were granted by the Crown by Royal Charter or Letters Patent. Denization was essentially a scaled down version of naturalisation Denizens became a British subject without acquiring full citizenship rights, such as the right to vote or stand for election and inherit property. However, denizens were entitled to purchase ... more

  • Period: 1677 - Onwards

    Summary

    Directories contain listings of prominent people, local officials and traders in a village or town usually with maps and a geographical and topographical description of the place. Some deal with a specific occupation or trade which might include biographies. Most directories will provide a history of the place and descriptions of local amenities such as schools, workhouses and churches and other ... more

  • Period: 1677 - Onwards

    Summary

    Listings of prominent people, local officials and traders in a village or town usually with a geographical and topographical description of the place. Some deal with a specific occupation or trade which might include biographies. Directories can be used as a limited census substitute but they do not necessarily include every resident. ... more

  • Period: 1858 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records from divorce suits regardless of the success or otherwise of the case. Divorce and other matrimonial cases were heard before a new London-based secular and civil divorce court, the Court for Divorce and Matrimonial Causes The court was established in 1858 following the 1857 Matrimonial Causes Act covering England and Wales. In 1873 the court was transferred into the Probate, Divorce and ... more

  • Period: 1100 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of those involved in the care and treatment of the sick. Before the 19th century three groups of people practiced medicine: namely, apothecaries, barber surgeons and physicians. The first apothecaries' livery company The Worshipful Society of Apothecaries was incorporated by royal charter in 1617 to represent those working in the field of preparing and selling medicines. The Royal ... more

  • Period: 1832 - Onwards

    Summary

    Electoral registers were compiled annually and list all adults eligible to vote in local and national elections within each polling district together with details of their qualifying property. The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act for the first time modestly extended the vote to non-property owning males. The Act widened the franchise to include those ... more

  • Period: 1700 - 1872

    Summary

    Lists of people, known as freeholders, who voted at elections or were entitled to vote. The entitlement to vote was restricted to men who owned land outright or held it by lease. Poll books are normally arranged on a county basis. Voter lists and registers provide similar information to poll books but do record how the person voted. In Ireland, during the 18th and 19th centuries a person ... more

  • Period: 1500 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records generated from those leaving the UK for overseas territories. The majority of people who migrated did so either voluntarily or were forced against their will because of religious persecution or for economic reasons. Others were encouraged/assisted to move from their country of origin. In England many working class poor were encouraged or ‘assisted’ by charitable institutions ... more

  • Period: 1650 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of those who emigrated from Ireland, numbering nearly 4 million between 1820 and 1900. The first wave of mass emigration from Ireland began with the forcible transportation of around 100,000 Irish to North America and the West Indies under Oliver Cromwell's rule. In the 17th and 18th centuries many Irish emigrated as indentured servants to the American colonies together with many ... more

  • Period: 1750 - 1860

    Summary

    Records from enclosure awards which effectively broke up the smallholding system of farming the land and consolidated vast open shared tracts of land in the hands of wealthy landowners with many small farmers turned into landless labourers. The process began in the 12th century but became widespread from 1750. Open land was allotted to landowners by private Acts of Parliament and later by the ... more

  • Period: 1500 - Onwards

    Summary

    Documents relating to the administration of an estate which can include plans, accounts, terriers, rentals, valuations, surveys, leases, deeds, maps and correspondence. Many villages were controlled by an estate owning family. Estate maps were drawn up by the landowner showing the extent of his lands. The amount of detail varies and could include every dwelling and building or just the boundary, ... more

  • Period: 1300 - Onwards

    Summary

    Family material such as documents and memorabilia including photos, family bibles, birthday books, letters, postcards, mourning rings, memorial cards, school reports, medals etc. Names, dates, places and occupations can be established from these sources but also a person's appearance, characteristics, and their family traditions. A person's oral history is an important element of family sources. ... more

  • Period: 1182 - 1834

    Summary

    Final agreement or judgment on freehold ownership and transfer of land and property following a fictitious lawsuit. The suit centred around a fictitious claim by the plaintiff against the deforciant who was claimed to be preventing the rightful owner from occupying the property. The settlement or final agreement was recorded on one single membrane of vellum and divided into three copies. Two ... more

  • Period: 1199 - 1648

    Summary

    Records of fines (financial payments or offerings) made to the Crown and records of appointments of Crown officials kept by the Court of Chancery. Payments were made to the Crown for charters, writs, privileges, licences to marry, grants of land, granting of markets and fairs, granting of tolls and customs, permission to trade and pardons or release from custody. Fine Rolls also covered areas ... more

  • Period: 1690 - 1883

    Summary

    Details of policy holders who insured their property against fire and recorded in the policy registers. Records also include maps commissioned by the fire insurance companies. Most companies were established soon after the Great Fire in 1666. The first modern fire insurance company began as the Sun Fire Office in 1710. Also consult the maps and plans drawn up by the fire insurance companies ... more

  • Period: 1796 - 1796

    Summary

    Listing of about 60,000 farmers entitled to a grant for growing flax seed. The Irish linen industry was dependent on the crop, so the scheme was intended as an incentive for farmers to increase production. The records are arranged by county and parish with the funds administered by the Irish Linen Board. Those who had planted one acre were awarded four spinning wheels, and those planting five ... more

  • Period: 1611 - 1754

    Summary

    Marriage registers from ceremonies conducted in and around the Fleet Prison in London, with many taking place in local taverns and coffee houses. As clergymen were often confined to the Fleet as debtors, they performed marriage ceremonies for other inmates for a fee without licence or other formalities. This practice was stopped in 1711, but clergy carried on conducting irregular but legal ... more

  • Period: 1717 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of the men that joined the fraternal society of Freemasons. Modern freemasonry began in the late 17th century with adherents often subjected to hostility and suspicion. The origins of the society were probably connected to the craft guilds of medieval times. The United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE) was established in 1717 and is the governing body of Freemasonry in England, Wales and the ... more

  • Period: 1800 - Onwards

    Summary

    Membership records of non-political mutual societies established to assist members financially in time of illness, old age and hardship. They were funded and governed by their members and included friendly societies, building societies, loan societies, trade unions and industrial and provident societies. By law society rulebooks had to be submitted to the Registrar and these are held by The ... more

  • Period: 1194 - 1348

    Summary

    Records from travelling courts of criminal law that heard common law cases. They assembled every few years and dispensed criminal justice outside of London where criminal law was centralised. In the provinces the only courts operating were manorial courts which dispensed justice in petty cases. Most surviving records include the accounts and plea rolls with the plea rolls offering the better ... more

  • Period: 1731 - 1922

    Summary

    The Gentleman's Magazine, originally published as The Gentleman's Magazine: or Trader's Monthly Intelligencer, was founded in 1731 by Edward Cave. The monthly journal covered many aspects of social and political life. The magazine covered daily news events with reports on the major stories of the day and unusual events as well as providing daily weather summaries. Articles covered a wide variety ... more

  • Period: 1835 - 1936

    Summary

    Details of the identity or change of ownership of Great Western Railway (GWR) shareholders. The index was produced by the Society of Genealogists from ledgers created by the Great Western Railway. The original ledgers were known as Probate Books by the GWR as most transfers (about 90 per cent) occurred following the death of a shareholder. The Index mainly deals with the death of a ... more

  • Period: 1848 - 1864

    Summary

    Listing of heads of household and occupiers of every piece of land or property in Ireland, amounting to around 1.25 million people. The survey known as Griffith's Valuation was carried out from 1847 to 1864 under the direction of geologist Richard Griffith , the head surveyor and Director of the Valuation Office in Dublin. All privately held land and property was surveyed and valued to ... more

  • Period: 1155 - 1900

    Summary

    Records from organisations established to regulate craft trades and to control imports, set wages and conditions and train apprentices. The records consist of annual lists of those permitted to trade within the city as a merchant or craftsman. Many guilds operated as religious fraternities drawing members from a variety of occupations with admittance strictly controlled. The local business ... more

  • Period: 1850 - 1934

    Summary

    Records of outbound passenger lists of about 5 million individuals. Around 80 per cent of passengers travelled to the USA. About two thirds of the passengers originated from eastern Europe and the rest from Germany. The records cover the years from 1850 to 1934 except the years covering 1915 to 1919. The lists are written in German and most online indexes only cover the peak years. See also ... more

  • Period: 1691 - 1695

    Summary

    List of people liable to pay a tax on each hearth or fireplace in a building at a rate of 14 shillings Scots on every hearth. The records are arranged by county and parish. Although the tax was abolished in England, King William III (William II in Scotland) persisted with the tax in Scotland. Not all counties show the taxpayer's names and the poor were exempt from the tax. Some records only ... more

  • Period: 1662 - 1689

    Summary

    Lists of people liable to pay a tax on each fire, hearth and stove in a building. The tax was payable twice-yearly at Lady Day (25th March) and Michaelmas (29th September) at a rate of two shillings per year. The assessments were organised by county, parish and then hundred. The collection process involved property owners and landlords making a written return of the number of their hearths ... more

  • Period: 1125 - Onwards

    Summary

    Genealogical information contained on coats of arms (shields or escutcheons) and heraldic seals of the armigerous (those entitled to bear arms). Coats of arms evolved from the battlefield as a means of identification and were later displayed at jousting tournaments. As the military use declined, coats of arms became the new  status symbol for the wealthy and well-connected. In modern times ... more

  • Period: 1318 - Onwards

    Summary

    Genealogical information contained on coats of arms (shields or escutcheons) and heraldic seals of the armigerous (those entitled to bear arms). Coats of arms evolved from the battlefield as a means of identification and were later displayed at jousting tournaments. As the military use declined, coats of arms became the new  status symbol for the wealthy and well-connected. In modern times ... more

  • Period: 1530 - 1686

    Summary

    Records from the Heralds who travelled the country validating those that claimed the right to bear arms (armigers) by investigating their pedigrees. The Lyon Court in Scotland was established in 1318 and The College of Heralds in England in 1484 to create rules concerning the displaying and inheritance of arms and the registration of arms. Professionals known as Heralds officially known as ... more

  • Period: 1933 - 1945

    Summary

    Records from those that perished in Nazi concentration camps and death camps. The victims were mainly Jews but included homosexuals, gypsies, the mentally ill, the disabled and Jehovah's Witnesses. Most of the records were destroyed but documents captured by Allied Forces remain in the public domain. Many records are emerging from Russian archives. Concentration camps were established soon ... more

  • Period: 1700 - Onwards

    Summary

    Medical records of those treated in a hospital or records of those born or who died in a hospital. The very early hospitals such as St. Thomas's Hospital in London were built by the church and run by monastic orders but were shut down by Henry VIII during the dissolution of the monasteries between 1536 and 1541. Some secular hospitals had also been founded by voluntary contributions by ... more

  • Period: 1200 - Onwards

    Summary

    Documents and records that assist in the research of a property's history. The exterior of the dwelling should be examined especially the materials used in the construction which could provide clues of the date of build. For example, brickwork became widespread by the early 16th century. Internally, fireplaces and floors can offer clues for dating the property. The presence of a date plaque ... more

  • Period: 1550 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of French and Low Country Protestants who fled persecution from their own governments. French Protestants had enjoyed relative freedom of worship in France guaranteed by the 1598 Edict of Nantes. Many fled France after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 by Louis XIV who considered them a source of potential rebellion. Within a few years, more than 400,000 Huguenots fled ... more

  • Period: 1255 - 1279

    Summary

    Records from the old administrative areas known as Hundreds which were positioned between the county and parish. The Hundred court which held jurisdiction over the Hundred unit of administration dealt with Crown land and property issues, so expect to find the names of tenants. In northern England the Hundred was known as a Wapentake and in Wales as Cantrefi. ... more

  • Period: 1500 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of those who came to Britain from other countries. The first immigrant group that arrived in Britain for which we have records was the protestant Huguenots fleeing persecution in France. In the late 18th and 19th centuries, many Germans seeking a better economic life settled in Britain. Italians also settled in Britain in large numbers during the 19th century. The first group of Jews to ... more

  • Period: 1600 - 1948

    Summary

    Records of the civilian and military administrations that ruled India from the establishment of the East India Company in 1600 to the Indian and Pakistani independence of 1947. The records mainly originate from the East India Company, the Board of Control, the India Office and the Burma Office. The Honourable East India Company (HEIC) ran the economic and commercial interests of the colony. The ... more

  • Period: 1235 - 1662

    Summary

    Records from a Crown inquest taken after the death of a feudal Tenant in Chief. The Inquest sought to establish the land held by the deceased as well as the legal heir. The inquest was often accompanied by an extent or survey which offers a complete description of the deceased's manor. Surveys also reveal the topography of the area and the occupations and employment of those that worked on the ... more

  • Period: 1656 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records generated from within the Jewish community and other records relating to the community. The evolution of Jewish life in England did not result in a central Jewish authority gathering and collecting records on individuals. Therefore, Jewish records are not found in centrally housed places. Records tend to be dispersed amongst various libraries, museums and local synagogues. The ... more

  • Period: 1690 - Onwards

    Summary

    Registers of birth, marriage and death within Jewish communities. Birth Unfortunately the Jewish authorities pursued a haphazard method of record keeping and in the case of births little interest was shown in recording the birth of an infant. Jews did not begin the process of registering births until 1764. The Jewish congregations held on to their less than complete birth, marriage and ... more

  • Period: 1696 - 1832

    Summary

    Annual returns of people qualified to serve as a juror based on ownership of freehold or copyhold land and property. The original qualification was restricted to those aged between 21 and 70 who owned freeholds worth at least 40 shillings per year. In 1825 the age restriction was lowered to 60 and the value of the qualifying property was revised to freeholds worth £10 per year. Other ... more

  • Period: 1590 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records from the Kirk Sessions, the lowest local court of the church. After the reformation of 1560 and the formal break with Rome and Roman Catholicism, the Presbyterian Church of Scotland formed congregations with each having a Kirk Session. The records detailed in the minute books dealt with many areas of everyday life including church non-attendance, sexual matters, bastardy and ... more

  • Period: 1220 - Onwards

    Summary

    Documents recording various methods of conveying property or land proving entitlement to ownership. Up to 1926 copyhold and freehold were the two main forms of tenure. Property transactions can be traced back to medieval times and feudal society. Under feudalism, the lord of the manor held all lands and allowed the use of these lands under condition of some form of service, usually knight ... more

  • Period: 1693 - 1963

    Summary

    Records from a tax levied year-by-year on all land held by landowners with an annual value of more than 20 shillings. The surviving documents consist of assessments and returns and show the owners of real estate in each parish, organised by county, hundred and then parish. The tax replaced a number of levies and subsidies most notably the Hearth Tax . From 1772, the returns were altered to ... more

  • Period: 1700 - 1900

    Summary

    Documents relating to the administration of an estate which includes title deeds, agents' reports, correspondence, rentals, household accounts, estate maps, valuations, wage books, maps and surveys. Estate records could also hold militia and yeomanry musters which give the names of men available to serve as local defence volunteers. Other estate records that contain the names of individual ... more

  • Period: 1729 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records from those that trained and worked in the legal profession. Solicitors and barristers both trained in law but have different roles. Solicitors advice clients of their legal rights and can specialise in a particular area such as probate whilst barristers acts as advocate for a client in a criminal or civil court of law. A barrister had to become a member of one of the four Inns of ... more

  • Period: 1275 - 1665

    Summary

    Records from a tax levied on lay people on their movable property rather than land. The tax was usually raised as and when needed to fund a particular venture such as a military campaign. The poor were exempt from the tax as was clerical property. The clergy were subject to a separate clerical subsidy. The tax was also known as Tenths and Fifteenths. The records consist of lists compiled by the ... more

  • Period: 1853 - 1887

    Summary

    Records of licences issued to criminals in prison released on grounds of good behaviour before the end of sentence. The records consist of the official Order of Licence which was placed on their prison file. The arrangement was similar to a modern day convict released on parole. The records are arranged by licence number and then by date which presents difficulties when searching for a name. ... more

  • Period: 1889 - 1903

    Summary

    Records from a private report and enquiry into the levels of poverty in London entitled the Life and Labour of the People in London . The report was set up in 1886 by the nonconformist Unitarian businessman and shipping magnate Charles Booth. The seventeen-volume report, condensed from 392 notebooks, was published between 1889 and 1903 in three series, 'Poverty' (1889), 'Industry' and ... more

  • Period: 1810 - 1869

    Summary

    Registration documents of foreigners entering Britain. The registers were compiled at the port of entry by the ship's master detailing the known aliens amongst the passengers. The documents were lodged with the local Justice of the Peace and forwarded to the Aliens Office in London. Landlords also had to supply details of foreigners residing at their lodgings. The records were complied under the ... more

  • Period: 1403 - 1985

    Summary

    Records such as admission and discharge registers as well as administrative records from institutions established to house the mentally ill. Before the establishment of specialist places, those classified as lunatics were housed in hospitals, jails and workhouses whilst the wealthier used the services of private asylums. The first specialist asylum was called Bethlem Hospital (also known as ... more

  • Period: 1250 - Onwards

    Summary

    Maps provide a graphical or visual representation of an area or place and gazetteers list place names often with geographical features and extensive historical information. Most directories and gazetteers also include maps. Large scale maps covering all areas were available by the 1880s. The earliest date from 16th century and usually portray individual counties with the most notable series ... more

  • Period: 1695 - 1706

    Summary

    Records from an Act of Parliament that imposed a tax on births (not baptisms), marriages and burials as well as on childless widowers and bachelors over the age of 25. The Marriage Duty Act or Registration Tax was used as a revenue raising mechanism for war on France and as a means of ensuring that registering vital events were carried out by an Anglican vicar and not a nonconformist minister. ... more

  • Period: 1520 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records generated from couples who chose to pay for a licence to marry rather than by banns. Bonds (up to 1823) and allegations form part of the licence. The actual licence was held by the applicant. Marriage by licence was usually associated with wealthier people (but not necessarily so) who wanted to avoid marriage by banns which involved a church announcement of the intention to marry ... more

  • Period: 1300 - 1882

    Summary

    Records from deeds drawn up before or shortly after marriage that arranged for the future disposal of property and money. The mechanism was often used by wealthy and property owning women to safeguard their interests as, under common law, a married woman was legally owned by the husband. After the Married Woman's Property Act of 1882, women gained the right of property ownership. Any family ... more

  • Period: 1824 - 1953

    Summary

    Records from the Merchant Seamen apprenticeship agreements or indentures. Under the Merchant Shipping Act of 1823, all vessels over 80 tons were legally obliged to carry at last one apprentice. These were filed with the local Customs Officer and are now available at The National Archives (TNA). A further Act of 1835 handed the responsibility for registering London based apprentices to the ... more

  • Period: 1845 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of qualifications gained in order to serve as a master or mate which was at first voluntary from 1845 but made compulsory in 1850. Certificates of Service were issued to men who had proof of long service prior to 1850 and Competency Certificates were issued to new entrants after formal examination by the Board of Trade. Initially, the certificates covered those serving only on foreign ... more

  • Period: 1835 - 1976

    Summary

    Records of Crew Lists and Agreements which were created following the 1835 Merchant Shipping Act. The Act stipulated that the ship's master had to compile Agreements and Crew Lists and then lodge these with the Registrar General of Shipping and Seamen, (RGSS). The process created a central register of Merchant Seamen employed on British merchant ships who could be called up to serve with the ... more

  • Period: 1837 - Onwards

    Summary

    Registers and records of merchant seamen who died on board a British vessel. The civil registration Act of 1837 required the ship’s master to record births (with at least one English parent), marriages and deaths at sea. Details of the event were sent to the Registrar General at the General Register Office and entered into the Marine Register now held at The National Archives (TNA) and ... more

  • Period: 1747 - 1851

    Summary

    Records detailing the ship's crew, the ships they served on and the voyages undertaken. The musters are arranged by year and by the port the vessel was attached to. Unfortunately the records are not arranged with any form of name or ship index. Unfortunately, the musters often only name the master and the number of crew on board, but on occasions include a full crew list. Before 1747 no ... more

  • Period: 1814 - 1972

    Summary

    Listing of crew members arranged by Register Ticket number and alphabetically by name. Between 1845 and 1854, the authorities established this entirely new system whereby every mariner intending to work on a vessel sailing from the UK had to apply for a Register Ticket. Each Ticket was entered into a ledger from which an alphabetical register was compiled. First consult the indexes which provide ... more

  • Period: 1835 - 1857

    Summary

    Registers of seaman employed in the Merchant Navy. The indexed Registers of Seamen were extracted and compiled from newly created Agreements and Crew Lists, established following the 1835 Merchant Shipping Act. The Act stipulated that the ship's master had to compile Agreements and Crew Lists and then lodge these with the Registrar General of Shipping and Seamen, (RGSS). The process created a ... more

  • Period: 1852 - Onwards

    Summary

    A record of events on board the ship concerning the crew and passengers. The information detailed events such as illness, births, marriages and deaths, crew movements and disciplinary proceedings. If survived, the log will be found with the crew agreement papers, except for the years between 1905-1912 and 1914-1918 when they were kept separately. These are now held at The National Archives in ... more

  • Period: 1787 - 1854

    Summary

    The ancient Corporation of Trinity House was responsible for the supervision of lighthouses and buoys around the England coast. It also distributed charitable funds to Merchant seamen and their families. The records relate to petitions for aid submitted by poor disabled seamen or their widows. Many petitions have been destroyed so the records are not complete. Other similar sources include: ... more

  • Period: 1779 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records from Methodist chapel meetings and committees and other circuit records including registers of Methodist birth, baptism, marriage, death and burial from the various Methodist denominations. The Methodists were probably the best record keepers of the nonconformists. Methodism originated in the 1720s with the teachings of John Wesley , a Church of England clergyman, his brother Charles ... more

  • Period: 1641 - 1820

    Summary

    Records from the militia ballot lists and the militia lists as well as other volunteer forces and fencibles . Fencible regiments consisted of a volunteer forces willing to serve in England, Scotland or Ireland and were raised by estate owning landowners or clan chiefs. The volunteer forces were raised at the time of the Napoleonic Wars. After the union of 1707, the records of those that ... more

  • Period: 1285 - 1924

    Summary

    Records generated from the county based part-time civilian military force composed of able-bodied males between the ages of 16 and 60. The force was intended mainly for national home defence when the regular army was engaged in foreign campaigns. The surviving records can be divided between two timeframes, namely before and after the Militia Act of 1757. After the English Civil War ... more

  • Period: 1798 - 1950

    Summary

    Minutes, correspondence, journals, diaries, and papers detailing the work of the Missionary Societies. ... more

  • Period: 1300 - Onwards

    Summary

    Memorials commemorating a person's death marked on a gravestone. Before the civil registration of deaths in 1864, a Memorial Inscription might be the only record of the event. Also look for Cemetery Registry Books which contain lists of those buried in the larger municipal cemeteries. Between 1888 and 1934 Brian J. Cantwell transcribed thousands of memorials collectively known as the ... more

  • Period: 1600 - Onwards

    Summary

    Memorial commemorating a person's death marked on a gravestone and usually found in a churchyard. Traditionally a Monumental Inscription would be found in the local church burial ground. However, the rapid population increases especially in urban areas and migration into larger towns and cities led to the development of large municipal burial grounds and cemeteries. Beware that the stone may ... more

  • Period: 1630 - 1876

    Summary

    Records from the county militias organised in Ireland between 1793 and 1876 which in theory every able-bodied man was liable to serve. The militia muster rolls list the principal landowners and the men available for military service, arranged by county and district. The surviving records are housed in the records offices in Northern Ireland and in the Republic and can often be found amongst the ... more

  • Period: 1914 - 1918

    Summary

    Details of the careers and medals of about 150,000 WWI soldiers published in 14 volumes by the National Publishing Company as a commercial venture. The majority of entries refer to combatants who survived the war, however its coverage is patchy and incomplete. Remember to look in the addendum pages for additional names. The volumes include some men and women who worked for the war effort in a ... more

  • Period: 1335 - 1987

    Summary

    Papers relating to those seeking to gain British nationality which before 1844 was acquired through private Acts of Parliament. Private Acts can be searched online at Portcullis , the Parliamentary Archives Catalogue. It is important to note that not all names may appear in the title of the Act so also consult the indexes created by the Huguenot Society in their Quarto Series (see below). ... more

  • Period: 1500 - Onwards

    Summary

    From the 15th century onwards, many people from the Netherlands migrated to other countries in Europe and outside of Europe. The Netherlands were occupied and ruled by France from 1795 to 1813 so there is also a good possibility of discovering French ancestry in the Netherlands during and after the occupation. Civil registration was introduced in most parts of the Netherlands in 1811 during ... more

  • Period: 1788 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records generated from those leaving the UK for New Zealand. The majority of people who migrated did so either voluntarily or were forced against their will because of religious persecution or for economic reasons. Others were encouraged/assisted to move from their country of origin. The Empire Settlement Act of 1922 formed a key piece of legislation, providing assistance for migrants from the ... more

  • Period: 1622 - Onwards

    Summary

    Daily or weekly printed record of events covering a wide variety of subject areas including people, places and events. The first British newspaper called the Weekly News was published in 1622 in London. In 1785 the Daily Universal Register, renamed The Times in 1788, began publication in London and in 1791 The Observer, the oldest national Sunday newspaper in Britain, began publication. The ... more

  • Period: 1530 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records from the many and varied dissenting nonconformist sects. In England nonconformists refused to confirm to the doctrine of the established Anglican Church of England. Originally the term dissenter was applied to those that refused to adhere to the 1662 Act of Uniformity by rejecting the use of the Book of Common Prayer in worship. Nonconformity expanded rapidly in the 19th century and ... more

  • Period: 1606 - 1828

    Summary

    Records generated from those compelled to take oaths of allegiance and supremacy acknowledging the monarch as the supreme head of the Church of England. The regulations were laid down in the Corporation Act of 1661 and the Test Act of 1673 and applied to anyone aspiring to hold public or military office or any position of trust. This provision effectively barred nonconformists, dissenters ... more

  • Period: 1200 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records relating to various professions, occupations and trades. Birth, marriage and death certificates as well as census returns record a person's occupation or trade. Parish registers after 1812 might note the person's occupation and look in trade directories for occupational information on a person. Please note that a person described as a journeyman worked as a day worker gaining new ... more

  • Period: 1841 - 1851

    Summary

    Records of searches made of the 1841 and 1851 census returns which were later destroyed in 1922. The searches were undertaken by the authorities to establish people who were over the age of 70 years following the introduction of Old Age Pension Act passed in 1909 by parliament in London. As civil registration only began in 1864, the authorities used the census returns as a way of verifying the ... more

  • Period: 1553 - 1854

    Summary

    Church of Scotland (Presbyterian) registers of baptisms, marriages proclamations and burials collectively known as Old Parish Registers (OPRs). The Presbyterian Reformed Church of Scotland or the 'Kirk' was formed in 1560 with the Kirk Session administering the parish presided over by a minister and 12 elders with the session clerk in charge of the registers and other session records. Until ... more

  • Period: 1553 - 1854

    Summary

    Church of Scotland (Presbyterian) registers of baptisms, marriages proclamations and burials collectively known as Old Parish Registers (OPRs). The Presbyterian Reformed Church of Scotland or the 'Kirk' was formed in 1560 with the Kirk Session administering the parish presided over by a minister and 12 elders with the session clerk in charge of the registers and other session records. Until ... more

  • Period: 1553 - 1854

    Summary

    Church of Scotland (Presbyterian) registers of baptisms, marriages proclamations and burials collectively known as Old Parish Registers (OPRs). The Presbyterian Reformed Church of Scotland or the 'Kirk' was formed in 1560 with the Kirk Session administering the parish presided over by a minister and 12 elders with the session clerk in charge of the registers and other session records. Until ... more

  • Period: 1572 - 1834

    Summary

    Records from the overseers' accounts which show the money collected for the poor of the parish and the individual payments made to the poor, either as a cash payment or in kind. Parliamentary Acts of 1598 ( Act for the Relief of the Poor ) and 1601 ( Poor Law Act ) handed responsibility for the welfare of the poor to the parish authorities. These two acts are collectively known as the Old Poor ... more

  • Period: 700 - Onwards

    Summary

    The study of old or ancient handwriting. An ability to read old forms of handwriting is essential when researching wills, inventories, property titles, deeds, parish registers and other documents. The styles of writing can be divided into three periods: Old English, 690-1100 Middle English, 1100-1500 (Court Hand, Book Hand) Modern English, 1500-present (Including Court, Legal, Chancery and ... more

  • Period: 1820 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records from Roman Catholic parish registers of baptism, marriage and burial Up to 1869 with passing of the Irish Church Act, the established church in Ireland was the Anglican (Protestant) Church of Ireland, although during the 19th century about 85 per cent of the Irish population was Roman Catholic, 10 per cent nonconformists with only about 5 per cent Protestant. Roman Catholic and Church of ... more

  • Period: 1634 - 1864

    Summary

    Records from Church of Ireland parish registers of baptism, marriage and burial. Up to 1869 with passing of the Irish Church Act, the established church in Ireland was the Anglican (Protestant) Church of Ireland, although during the 19th century about 85 per cent of the Irish population was Roman Catholic, 10 per cent nonconformists with only about 5 per cent Protestant. Use Lewis' Topographical ... more

  • Period: 1816 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of Methodist baptism/birth, marriage and burial/death. John and Charles Wesley first visited Ireland in the mid-18th century and eventually established the first Methodist chapel in Whitefriar Street, Dublin in 1752. Many more Methodist Societies were established but all operated within the established Anglican Church of Ireland. As a result, records of baptism, marriage or burial may be ... more

  • Period: 1820 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of Presbyterian baptism/birth, marriage and burial/death. During the 17th and 18th centuries many Presbyterian (Protestant) migrants from Scotland and England settled in Ulster. The persecution of Presbyterians (followers of the doctrines of John Calvin) in the 18th century meant that some Presbyterian baptisms, marriages and burials will be found in the registers of the Church of ... more

  • Period: 1860 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of Quaker baptism/birth, marriage and burial/death. Up to 1869 the established church was the Anglican Church of Ireland. Quakers births, marriages and deaths were reported at the local weekly meetings and then to the larger monthly meetings which then entered the events in registers. Up to 1869 with passing of the Irish Church Act, the established church in Ireland was the Anglican ... more

  • Period: 1538 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of Anglican baptism. The system of registration was established in 1538 by Thomas Cromwell, Lord Privy Seal to Henry VIII and Chief Secretary to the King. From this date, clergy were given the responsibility of registering baptisms, marriages and burials in a book secured in the parish chest. In 1598 an order was issued for all entries to be entered on parchment and all previous entries ... more

  • Period: 1538 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of Anglican burials. The system of registration was established in 1538 by Thomas Cromwell, Lord Privy Seal to Henry VIII and Chief Secretary to the King. From this date, clergy were given the responsibility of registering baptisms, marriages and burials in a book secured in the parish chest. In 1598 an order was issued for all entries to be entered on parchment and all previous entries ... more

  • Period: 1538 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of Anglican marriage whether performed by banns or licence. The system of registration was established in 1538 by Thomas Cromwell, Lord Privy Seal to Henry VIII and Chief Secretary to the King. From this date, clergy were given the responsibility of registering baptisms, marriages and burials in a book secured in the parish chest. In 1598 an order was issued for all entries to be entered ... more

  • Period: 1600 - Onwards

    Summary

    Documents relating to the work of parliament, including debates, draft legislation, white papers sessional papers (blue books) which include committee reports, royal commissions, public bills and accounts and papers. Public and Private Acts of Parliament are also included. Private Acts were used to obtain permission to build railways, roads and canals. Property and inheritance disputes such as ... more

  • Period: 1890 - 1960

    Summary

    Lists of those scheduled to travel by ship entering or leaving the UK or entering a foreign country. The requirement to record those arriving in and departing ports arose as a measure to control and monitor emigration in the 19th century. Unfortunately passenger lists, originating from the British Passenger Act of 1823, only survive from 1890. The records are arranged in date order by port ... more

  • Period: 1795 - 1948

    Summary

    Records of those who applied for a passport. The document was not compulsory for overseas travel until 1915 with modern day passports beginning life in 1920. Many were issued before this as proof of identity and as protection mainly to merchants and diplomats. Passports were not needed for countries within the Empire up to 1948. Before the introduction of passports, a person was issued with ... more

  • Period: 1199 - 1946

    Summary

      Records known as Letters Patent which were held at the Court of Chancery . Letters Patent were issued 'open' with the Great Seal pendant attached at the foot. The Letters dealt with many aspects of the economic, social and political business of government and the church. The issues dealt with included charters for founding schools, charters of incorporation, grants of liberties, ... more

  • Period: 1100 - Onwards

    Summary

    Published pedigrees extracted from books, county histories, heraldic visitations, biographies and local and national periodicals. Strictly speaking a pedigree chart or 'birth brief' shows the direct male line descent of a single individual through the generations. This type of chart should only show the parents through each generation without other relatives. A 'family tree' chart can expand the ... more

  • Period: 1700 - 1974

    Summary

    Records from local courts that mainly heard cases without a jury (summary jurisdiction). The court was presided over by one or more volunteer justices of the peace or stipendiary magistrates (later district judges) who were paid officials. Petty Sessions were the lowest tier in the court system and developed at the beginning of the 18th century to take on some of the work previously undertaken ... more

  • Period: 1839 - Onwards

    Summary

    Images of places, people and events. Before the age of photography, around 1839, look for engravings and illustrations. The first successful photographic process was the daguerreotype , developed by Louis Daguerre in 1840 which was in use from around 1841 to the early 1860s. The daguerreotype was restricted to the more wealthy and are therefore a fairly rare find. Other processes followed such ... more

  • Period: 1120 - 1833

    Summary

    Yearly Sheriff or chief financial officers accounts of royal income arranged county by county and held by the Exchequer. A copy of each Pipe Roll known as the Chancellor's Roll was also sent to the Chancery. The rolls are mostly written in Latin and heavily abbreviated and were also known as the Great Rolls of the Exchequer. From 1581 to 1591 the fines levied against Roman Catholics are ... more

  • Period: 1829 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of those that served as police officers. The modern police force was established in 1829 following the introduction of the Metropolitan Police Act by the home secretary Robert Peel. Before the establishment of the Metropolitan Police Force, London was served by the so called Bow Street Runners created in 1749 by Henry Fielding. The force comprised of professional police constables and ... more

  • Period: 1696 - 1872

    Summary

    Poll books provide a list of electors (confined to male adults over the age of 21) and who they voted for in parliamentary (Members of Parliament or ‘Knights of the Shire’), county and borough elections (from 1843) together with details of their entitlement to vote, measured by land and income. Eligibility was linked to property ownership and local customs but in some areas most ... more

  • Period: 1377 - 1698

    Summary

    Records from a tax levied on heads of population which sometimes listed the entire household including the children. The tax was technically a lay subsidy or income tax and was levied regardless of status and wealth. Parish officials collected and compiled lists of local residents over the age of 15 or 16 depending on which year the tax was levied. In England the tax was levied in 1377, 1379, ... more

  • Period: 1759 - 1930

    Summary

    Records from those in receipt of poor relief. A Poor Law had been in existence since 1579 and was based on voluntary donations from sources such as church collections, seat letting charges and charitable donations. Kirk Session and the heritors were responsible for overseeing poor relief so the session minute books and the heritor accounts should show details of payments made to the poor. ... more

  • Period: 1691 - Onwards

    Summary

    Postal services began operations in 1635 with the opening of the 'Royal Mail' by Charles I. Oliver Cromwell established the General Post Office in 1657 but the 'Royal Mail' was later re-established following the restoration. A 'penny post' system was introduced in London in 1680 and across many towns and cities and in 1840, a nationwide postal service was introduced along with postage stamps. Up ... more

  • Period: 1299 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of those incarcerated in a locally or government run prison. Before the 19th century most prisons were used to hold people awaiting trail but later in the 19th century, people were sentenced to serve a prison term as a punishment. Court orders for imprisonment or transfers form part of the available documents. Those convicted of more serious crimes were known as convicts rather than ... more

  • Period: 1740 - 1740

    Summary

    Listing of Protestant heads of household arranged by county, barony and parish but not townland. The original returns were destroyed by the explosion and fire at the Four Courts building in Dublin during the civil war in 1922. However a number of returns had previously been transcribed by the genealogist Tenison Groves and these form the only surviving remnants of the census. The areas covered ... more

  • Period: 1641 - 1642

    Summary

    Records from an oath of protestant loyalty taken by all males over the age of 18, organised parish by parish. The oath was used as a way of establishing the number of Roman Catholics in England in order to tax them more heavily. The oaths were effectively a census of all adult males. The local minister or churchwarden recorded the names and then returned them to parliament. Coverage is ... more

  • Period: 1522 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of those who applied for an annual victualler’s licence, issued to an individual who intended to serve food and alcoholic beverages in a public house. From 1522, a person wanting to sell alcoholic drinks had to apply for a licence from the Quarter or Petty Sessions and it is from the records of these courts that the majority of publican records originate. Most records and ... more

  • Period: 1650 - Onwards

    Summary

    Quaker records of birth (Quakers did not believe in baptism at all), marriage and death. The Quakers, formally known as the Religious Society of Friends, was founded by George Fox (1624-1691) in 1647. The Friends rejected any form of organised structure to worship or any hierarchy of ministers and are renowned for their systematic and thorough record keeping. Most registers survive after 1780 ... more

  • Period: 1650 - Onwards

    Summary

    The Quakers, formally known as the Religious Society of Friends, was founded by George Fox (1624-1691) in 1647. The Friends rejected any form of organised structure to worship or any hierarchy of ministers and are renowned for their systematic and thorough record keeping. Like other nonconformists, the Quakers were subjected to persecution and harassment such as the Quaker Act of 1662 which ... more

  • Period: 1361 - 1971

    Summary

    Records from the session court rolls including the criminal trials, the indictment and juror lists and the minute and order books which will contain name indexes. The sessions were presided over by at least two Justices of the Peace (JPs) and were held quarterly in each county at Epiphany (December/January), Easter (April), Midsummer (July) and Michaelmas (October). The court not only dealt ... more

  • Period: 1830 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of those employed on the rail network. The rail network saw a massive expansion from the 1830s with a near complete network having been built by the 1860s. The railways proved popular with the general public who, for the first time, had the means to travel and visit towns and resorts across the country. The rail network also provided an efficient means to transport freight over large ... more

  • Period: 1601 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of local rates recorded in rate books which were kept by the church vestry. Rate lists can be found in the parish vestry accounts , the overseer's accounts or the churchwarden's accounts . The rates were levied on property owners and occupiers based on the yearly value of property. As the demands of the poor consumed greater amounts of funds, the majority of the separate rates were ... more

  • Period: 1581 - 1691

    Summary

    Records of books containing the names of people, mainly Roman Catholics, who refused to conform to the Anglican doctrine . The so called recusancy rolls are arranged by county and recorded the punishments and fines of those who refused to conform to the Anglican doctrine. After 1581, recusancy became an indictable offence, so recusants often appear in Quarter Session records and Assize ... more

  • Period: 1708 - Onwards

    Summary

    There are two separate systems for recording transactions in relation to property in Ireland: The Registry of Deeds system operated by the Registry of Deeds. The Registration of Title system operated by the Land Registry. Both forms of registration are managed by the Property Registration Authority Register of Deeds Records from the register of land transfers and tenancies ... more

  • Period: 1200 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records from deeds which were legally enforceable agreements, contracts and other writs registered in the Court of Session . A deed could deal with a variety of matters such as bonds, trust settlements and marriage settlements (a form of will), wills and codicils, tacks (lease agreements), apprenticeship indentures and business contracts. Some deeds may concern the sale of land. The original ... more

  • Period: 1869 - 1876

    Summary

    Registers compiled by prison authorities naming locals deemed likely to re-offend having been released from prison. Many photos exist as it was common practice to photograph habitual criminals. A register of Habitual Drunkards also exists covering the years from 1903 to 1914 which is held at The National Archives in series MEPO 6/77 -88 Also see Assize Records Calendars of Prisoners ... more

  • Period: 1766 - 1766

    Summary

    Records from the 1766 Religious Census of Ireland. As part of the attempt to maintain the power and influence of the established Protestant Church of Ireland, the authorities authorised the undertaking of a census to establish the religious affiliations of the population. The census listed about 11,000 heads of household showing their religion affiliation, whether Church of Ireland, Presbyterian ... more

  • Period: 1851 - 1851

    Summary

    Returns from the Home Office voluntary census of places of worship officially known as the census of Accommodation and Attendance at Worship . The census recorded the numbers of worshipers attending service regardless of denomination. The actual date of the census was Sunday 30th March 1851. Often additional comments were added to the returns which might even include the names of ... more

  • Period: 1822 - 1874

    Summary

    Records from the Irish Reproductive Loan Fund which was set up in 1824 to provide small loans to those most affected by the effects of widespread poverty and famine in Ireland. The records provide useful genealogical information on a group of people who might not appear in other records. Local associations and committees administered the scheme. In the area of finance the records of the Irish ... more

  • Period: 1545 - 1964

    Summary

    Records generated from the result of an inquest heard by a jury to establish the right of an heir to inherit property. Under the feudal system of land tenure an heir had to prove the right to inherit and this was established by a jury of local landowners who were summoned by the local sheriff on instruction from the Chancery. The jury heard the pleas and decided on the rightful heir. The ... more

  • Period: 1873 - 1873

    Summary

    Register of all landowners in England and Wales who owned more than one acre of land compiled from rate books and published in the Parliamentary Papers. The returns were used to asses rates for the Poor Law Board. The Return is sometimes referred to as the 'Doomsday Book'. Central London was not included in the survey but ii does include Middlesex and Surrey. The returns can be particularly ... more

  • Period: 1529 - 1639

    Summary

    Lists of people born overseas and residing in England during the 16th and 17th centuries. Aliens are listed in the State Papers in the 16th and 17th centuries and many of these were Protestant Huguenots escaping persecution from the largely Catholic Low Countries and France. Many of these names have been indexed and published by the Huguenot Society or calendared. Lay Subsidy Rolls provide ... more

  • Period: 1680 - 1780

    Summary

    Records from an audit or census of Roman Catholics taken nationwide, arranged in dioceses by town or village. Some returns simply record the numbers of Catholics and not their names. The audits were carried out in 1680, 1705, 1744, 1767 and 1780. Many lists of names taken from the returns are found in Quarter Session records. The period of Roman Catholic persecution is often referred to as ... more

  • Period: 1723 - 1725

    Summary

    Registers of Roman Catholics who refused to take oaths of loyalty after the Jacobite Rebellion of 1715. They were required to register their names and estates at Quarter Session or face the seizure of their property. Returns are arranged alphabetically by county and some towns. The Forfeited Estates Commission (FEC) was responsible for overseeing the seizure of the estates and details can ... more

  • Period: 1750 - Onwards

    Summary

    Registers of Catholic baptisms, confirmations, marriages and occasionally burials. The Toleration Act of 1689 guaranteed freedom of worship for dissenting groups and granted these groups the right to establish their own licensed places of worship (attendance at Anglican church services was compulsory up until the Act). However, the Act of Toleration expressly excluded Roman Catholics from the ... more

  • Period: 1918 - Onwards

    Summary

    Officer records published in the official Air Force List which was first published in April 1918. The entries include all officers who joined the new service from the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) and the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS). Details of the officer's units and locations were provided in some detail up to 1939. The Royal Flying Corps was established in 1912 coming under the control of ... more

  • Period: 1914 - 1918

    Summary

    Records of those wounded or killed in action. For details of an airman's death consult the ' Soldiers Died in the Great War ' publication. First published in 1921, the 81 volumes lists approximately 635,000 Soldiers and 37,000 Officers who died in WWI. The records also deal with Royal Flying Corps and Royal Air Force casualties. The publication may contain additional information to that on the ... more

  • Period: 1914 - 1918

    Summary

    Details of day-to-day activities of RAF squadrons which includes log books, combat reports, squadron histories and squadron Operational Record Books (ORBs) which record the day to day activities of the unit or squadron. Other operational records cover Commands, Groups, Stations and Wings of the RAF and are scattered amongst various series at The National Archives. The Royal Flying Corps ... more

  • Period: 1918 - 1928

    Summary

    Service details for airmen of the Royal Air Force (RAF) as well as the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) and the Royal Flying Corps (RFC). The service records are arranged numerically in bound volumes by the service number and not the surname of the airman. The service number can be found on any medals awarded. Failing this The National Archives holds a microfilmed name index in series AIR 78 . ... more

  • Period: 1918 - 1919

    Summary

    Service details for officers of the Royal Air Force (RAF) which also include details of earlier war time service. Although the records were created after the formation of the RAF in April 1918, many of the records deal with earlier service with the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) and Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS).  The Royal Flying Corps was established in 1912 coming under the control of the ... more

  • Period: 1914 - Onwards

    Summary

    Royal Air Force (RAF) and Royal Flying Corp (RFC) service men and women were eligible for the same WWI campaign and gallantry medals as the army. The medal rolls provide details of the medals together with details of those awarded a campaign medal whether officer or other rank. The details of an award were recorded on rolls and from the rolls a summary index card was created for each person by ... more

  • Period: 1912 - 1918

    Summary

    Service records of airmen attached to the Royal Flying Corps (RFC), established 1912, who served in WWI and/or survived to receive a pension. The records comprise of attestation papers, discharge papers, medical records and casualty forms as well as pension claims. The RFC was a corps of the British Army, therefore the service records form part of the Army records. For RFC airmen service ... more

  • Period: 1912 - 1918

    Summary

    Records of officers attached to the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) which was established in 1912. Originally the RFC was a corps of the British Army. The records of RFC officers who died or were discharged before the creation of the Royal Air Force in 1918 will also be found in the series of records. All official officer service records were destroyed by enemy action during WWII which includes the ... more

  • Period: 1790 - 1925

    Summary

    Records of details contained in Attestation Forms showing a rating's career and personal details. The forms are arranged by the marine's division and then by either the date of discharge or date of attestation. If the original attestation papers no longer survive, then try looking for the Description Books which provide personal details of a rating extracted from the information provided ... more

  • Period: 1810 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records relating to births, marriages and deaths of Marines and their families. The registers were kept and maintained within each Division. The Royal Marines (officially known as The Corps of Royal Marines) were established in 1755 as part of the Royal Navy but continued to use army ranks and uniforms. Their origins date back to 1664 to the Second Anglo-Dutch War . They were composed of ... more

  • Period: 1703 - 1925

    Summary

    Records from Royal Marine commissions which, unlike the Army, were free appointments and not sold. Therefore officer commissions were not the preserve of the wealthy and well connected. Some Marine officers later advanced their career by buying commissions in the Army. Marine Officers Lists provide details of an officer's career from 1757 to 1886 and are indexed from 1770. The Navy Lists ... more

  • Period: 1842 - 1936

    Summary

    Records relating to the time in service of a rating. The registers are arranged by division and then by service number. For research purposes it is important to know the Division the man served in and it is highly probable that he belonged to the Division nearest his home. From 1884 all men, including those already serving, were issued with a unique number in his Division. Each division was ... more

  • Period: 1793 - 1925

    Summary

    Details of an officer's career and personal details. The records are only complete from around 1837. The Royal Marines (officially known as The Corps of Royal Marines) were established in 1755 as part of the Royal Navy but continued to use army ranks and uniforms. Their origins date back to 1664 to the Second Anglo-Dutch War. They were composed of divisions with depots at Portsmouth, Plymouth, ... more

  • Period: 1914 - 1918

    Summary

    Service records of airmen serving with the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS), established in 1914. The airmen formed part of the Royal Navy and are therefore officially ratings with the records found amongst Royal Navy records. For more details see Royal Navy - Registers of Seamen's Services Those that joined on or after the creation of the RNAS in 1914 were issued with a service number ... more

  • Period: 1914 - 1918

    Summary

    Records of Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) officers who joined directly or were transferred in from other branches of the Royal Navy. Also consult the Navy List for officer information including his career, promotions and stations served at up to the end of March 1918. Search the Air Force List for his service after April 1918. The Royal Air Force was founded in 1918 following the ... more

  • Period: 1853 - 1872

    Summary

    Records relating to ratings who entered the navy for a fixed period of an initial ten year period. For each engagement served, a Continuous Service Number was issued, also known as 'CS numbers'. For the 18th century and much of the 19th century, ratings only signed up for a commission on a particular ship and was only employed for the duration of the commission. Therefore, naval rating's ... more

  • Period: 1697 - 1924

    Summary

    Records of officers paid a retainer whilst out of work. The payments acted as pension in later years for those who retired, as a formal pension scheme did not exist. Other pension records can be found in ADM 18 , ADM 11 , ADM 22 , ADM 104 , PMG 15 and PMG 16 . Full Pay Lists can be found in ADM 24 but do not survive before 1795. Bruno Pappalardo's Tracing Your Naval Ancestors ... more

  • Period: 1667 - 1902

    Summary

    Records generated from a naval applicant's entry or qualifying examination seeking to become a lieutenant. Passing certificates were issued to prove qualifications and provide information on an officer's early career and training and may include family and personal details. Some senior ratings gained a passing certificate and occasionally those that failed are mentioned. Bruno Pappalardo's ... more

  • Period: 1873 - 1923

    Summary

    Records relating to ratings who entered the navy for a fixed period covering the years from 1873 to 1923. The records concern ratings who were subjected to a new numbering system. Ratings who joined before 1873 but continued in service beyond this date might also appear in the Continuous Service Engagement Books which commence from 1853. Additional information could be added to existing ... more

  • Period: 1756 - 1931

    Summary

    Details of an officer's career and personal details. Although the records date back to 1756, the service details of officers were not kept in any systematic manner until after 1840. The officer grade consisted of warrant and commissioned officers. Warrant officers were appointed by the Admiralty for a particular technical skill or knowledge and worked in a number of occupations such as ... more

  • Period: 1817 - 1851

    Summary

    Following the Napoleonic wars (1793-1815) the navy shrank rapidly and officer commissions became harder to obtain with greater demand for the limited vacancies. Therefore surveys were sent to all officers to select the most capable to remain in service. The veracity of many returns is questionable and many were not returned or were lost. If an officer is not found amongst the Surveys it may ... more

  • Period: 1790 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records relating to those killed or wounded in action. For the 18th century and much of the 19th century, ratings only signed up for a commission on a particular ship and was only employed for the duration of the commission. Therefore, naval rating's records are rarely indexed by name with no individual service records kept on a sailor. It is therefore imperative that the name of the ship is ... more

  • Period: 1802 - 1894

    Summary

    Employment and service documentation used to support a rating's claim for a pension and also an officer's application for commission. A rating had no automatic right to a pension until 1859 when it was decided that continuous service for a period of 20 years would confer the right to a pension. Before this date a rating could apply for a pension if wounded on service. For the rating's claim to a ... more

  • Period: 1667 - 1878

    Summary

    Records held on sailors or ratings detailing the ships they served on and payments made to them. The lists were taken regularly each month. The levels of recruitment fluctuated depending on the demand for personnel especially in times of conflict. Paybooks should also be looked at as they can provide information such as age and place of birth which might be missing from the muster. They might ... more

  • Period: 1814 - Onwards

    Summary

    Official account printed quarterly of a naval officers career and biography. The Navy Lists contains details of all Royal Navy, Royal Marines, Queen Alexandra's Royal Naval Nursing Service and former Women's Royal Naval Service commissioned officers at the rank of lieutenant or above. The Lists include surgeons and pursers but do not include non-commissioned Officers. Chief engineers were added ... more

  • Period: 1737 - 1921

    Summary

    Details of applications for out-pensions issued by the Royal Greenwich Hospital and the Chatham Chest charity which include applications from Royal Marines. Pensions were paid to the widows of warrant officers, ratings and dockyard workers killed on service. Originally a charge of 6d was deducted per month from the wages of the seaman. The Royal Greenwich Hospital also accepted in-pensioners ... more

  • Period: 1793 - 1913

    Summary

    Details of the medals and those awarded a campaign medal whether officer or rating. For WWI, the rolls include most of those who saw active service overseas. There were three types of medals awarded to those serving in the Royal Navy namely; Campaign, Gallantry and for Good Conduct or Long Service. Gallantry medals were awarded for acts of gallantry and heroism. Almost all gallantry awards were ... more

  • Period: 1673 - 1828

    Summary

    Documents that certified that a person holding public or military office or any position of trust had received the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, in other words the Church of England communion. The regulations were laid down in the Corporation Act of 1661 and the Test Act of 1673. This provision effectively barred nonconformists, dissenters and Roman Catholics from gaining official ... more

  • Period: 1617 - 1981

    Summary

    Records of all land and property titles or transfers by grant, inheritance or sale as appearing in the Sasine (pronounced 'say-zin') Register or the Land Register of Scotland. Some land may not appear as it belonged absolutely to the Crown ('abiding supreme allodial sasine'), or reverted to the Crown in the event of a vassal's or tenant's death without an heir or no other superior. Before 1617 ... more

  • Period: 1550 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records generated from the running of educational establishments with admission registers, attendance/log books the most likely to contain information on individuals. The numerous miscellaneous school records such as school log books, minute books, school magazines and school brochures provide an insight into the daily life of the pupil and of the school. In addition, admissions are sometimes ... more

  • Period: 1662 - 1834

    Summary

    Records generated from The Act of Settlement and Removal (1662) which established the need to prove entitlement to poor relief by the issuing of Settlement Certificates . The certificates proved which parish a family belonged to and therefore which parish had the legal responsibility to provide poor relief if needed. The certificate gave the right of a person to live and receive welfare in ... more

  • Period: 1578 - 1872

    Summary

    Records relating to a vast array of government work from the principal secretaries of state. The collection includes public letters, petitions, memoranda and papers originally kept by the State Paper Office. Many lists of Catholics recusants and Newgate gaol prisoners are amongst the records. The documents can include members of the militia , names of masters and owners of ships, naval ... more

  • Period: 1791 - 1845

    Summary

    Surveys and description of about 938 Scottish parishes published between 1791 and 1799. The surveys were instigated by Sir John Sinclair, M.P. for Caithness who organised questionnaires to be sent to local Church of Scotland ministers covering the local geography, topography, natural resources, agriculture and population, including ages, gender and occupations. A second or ‘New’ ... more

  • Period: 1855 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records and indexes containing information relating to a birth. Statutory registration became compulsory in 1855 for all births and deaths and regular marriages for all religious denominations. The regulations came into force from January 1st 1855 following the passing of the Registration of Births, Deaths and Marriages (Scotland) Act 1854. Scotland is divided into Registration Districts ... more

  • Period: 1855 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records and indexes containing information relating to a death. Statutory registration became compulsory in 1855 for all births and deaths and regular marriages for all religious denominations. The regulations came into force from January 1st 1855 following the passing of the Registration of Births, Deaths and Marriages (Scotland) Act 1854. Scotland is divided into Registration Districts ... more

  • Period: 1855 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records and indexes containing information relating to a marriage. Statutory registration became compulsory in 1855 for all births and deaths and regular marriages for all religious denominations. The regulations came into force from January 1st 1855 following the passing of the Registration of Births, Deaths and Marriages (Scotland) Act 1854. Scotland is divided into Registration Districts ... more

  • Period: 1700 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of those occupied as stonemasons and related trades such as marble masonry. Stone masonry was considered a skilled trade, higher in ranking than a wheelwright or carpenter for example. Many craftsmen were self-taught and some developed their skills and later became architects and civil engineers. Some learnt their craft through the apprenticeship system either at the parish level or ... more

  • Period: 1400 - Onwards

    Summary

    Research into the origin and distribution of surnames. Analysis of the distribution of a surname could offer clues to the geographical location of a person or family being researched. Surnames generally came into use during the middle ages especially with the need to record inheritances and land transfers. The growth of settlements and towns also needed a way of distinguishing one person from ... more

  • Period: 1649 - 1650

    Summary

    A survey of all crown and church land, including topographical information made during the Commonwealth, in preparation for the sale of Crown lands. Occasionally these surveys might be found amongst the collections of family and estate records . ... more

  • Period: 1100 - 1350

    Summary

    Records from the manorial surveys detailing the land, property and tenants. Generally surveys will list all the tenants who held property within the manorial boundary. The surveys would have been updated periodically so a run of surveys can help identify an individual over time. The manorial documents relate to an insular world of the manor in which the lord of the manor exercised almost ... more

  • Period: 1694 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records from various taxes including: Sheep Tax , 1549-1550 Coaches and Carriages Tax , 1747-1782, tax levied on those owning a carriage. Silver Plate Tax , 1756-1777, tax levied on owners of silver usually by wealthy elite members of society. Male Servant Tax , 1777-1852, tax levied on households employing male servants with only the employer' name listed. Inhabited House Duty or ... more

  • Period: 1840 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records from those that taught in schools, colleges and universities. The first teacher training college opened as the Battersea Training College in Battersea in 1840 by Sir James P. Kay-Shuttleworth. The college was later taken over by the National Society in 1843. Many teacher records such as application forms and contracts of teachers can be found together with pupil and student records. ... more

  • Period: 1823 - 1838

    Summary

    Records from parish-by-parish listings of land occupying heads of household. The valuations were carried out as part of a reform of the tithe payments which were made payable to the established Protestant Church of Ireland. The process resulted in a complete valuation of tithable land in Ireland. The valuation was organised by parish and then township. Some parishes were amalgamated for the ... more

  • Period: 1836 - 1936

    Summary

    Records covering England and Wales generated from the Tithe Commutation Act of 1836 which allowed tithes (tenths) to be converted into cash payments. These payments were known as Tithe Awards (also known as apportionments or schedules) and were based on land values and the price of corn. Tithe Commissioners administered and collected the payments. Tithes had been levied on people from ... more

  • Period: 1693 - 1789

    Summary

    Records generated from a form of annuity (fixed annual income for life) organised by the state. The investors shared the annuity each year until each investor died leaving a sole subscriber. Tontines were usually associated with the wealthy who often subscribed on behalf of a relative (nominee). Some borough corporations also organised their own tontines. Records of Irish tontines are also ... more

  • Period: 1788 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records relating to the activities of Trade Unions. From the 1880s large sections of the unskilled working classes become unionised and organised. A significant amount of women joined the ranks of trade unions perhaps epitomised by the Bryant and May London matchgirls strike of 1888. The starting point of research is to establish which industrial sector the person was working in and then ... more

  • Period: 1615 - 1867

    Summary

    Records of convicts (including many women convicts) sentenced to transportation to America and other colonies or who had a death sentence commuted to transportation. Prison hulk records must also be consulted as convicts were held in the hulks prior to transportation. Prisoners were held in prison hulks whilst awaiting transportation which were used until 1857. Also consult petitions and ... more

  • Period: 1912 - 1912

    Summary

    Records from a pledge signed on the 28th September 1912 by 237,368 Ulster Unionist men and 234,046 women. Those that signed were objecting to plans to establish a home rule parliament in Dublin with limited powers. The Covenant itself was signed by men only. Women could sign a separate but similar pledge known as the Declaration. The pledge was also signed in major cities in England and ... more

  • Period: 1774 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records and registers from the Unitarian church. The church originated in the 16th century in Poland and Transylvania and evolved in Britain from dissenting Protestant congregations such as the English Presbyterianism and to a lesser extent Baptist theology. Scottish Presbyterianism followed a distinctly different path to that of its English counterpart. The first congregation in Britain was ... more

  • Period: 1167 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records generated from the running of universities with registers and calendars containing the most useful information on individuals. Up to the 19th century only two universities existed, namely Oxford (1249) and Cambridge (1284), who offered higher education mainly to the sons of the politically powerful and wealthy elite. Many more universities were established in 19th century offering a ... more

  • Period: 1607 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records generated from those leaving the UK for the United States. The majority of people who migrated did so either voluntarily or were forced against their will because of religious persecution or for economic reasons. Others were encouraged/assisted to move from their country of origin. The first English colony was established by the Virginia Company of London in Jamestown Virginia in 1607. ... more

  • Period: 1840 - 1948

    Summary

    Records of compulsory vaccination against smallpox which was one of the biggest killers during the 19th century. Widespread vaccination of children began in the 1830s with the passing of the first Vaccination Act. The vaccination programme was funded through the Poor Rate and administered by the Poor Law Unions. However the voluntary nature of the Act meant that take-up was poor so the ... more

  • Period: 1910 - 1920

    Summary

    Records generated from the valuation of all land and property in the England, Wales and Scotland over one acre as of 30th April 1909. The valuation was carried out under the Finance Act (1909-1910), under the authority of the Valuation Office of the Board of Inland Revenue. The project was brought in under the then chancellor of the exchequer Lloyd George as part of a plan to tax increases in ... more

  • Period: 1640 - 1988

    Summary

    The rolls contain lists of land and property owners, tenants and occupiers (head of family only), arranged by address and listed street by street. The rolls recorded the value of the property in terms of annual rent and the owner's tax liability and rate demand. The earlier stent rolls did not cover Burghs but only those areas outside their jurisdiction known as the landward areas. Valuation ... more

  • Period: 1700 - 1894

    Summary

    The vestry was composed of the parish priest and other local worthies and could appoint parish officials such as the overseer of the poor, churchwardens and constables, all named and occasionally with an occupation and address. The New Poor Laws of the 19th century and the Local Government Act of 1894 which created elected parish councils brought a close on the vestry. Look for militia lists ... more

  • Period: 1800 - Onwards

    Summary

    Inscriptions from graves and memorials commemorating the deaths of service men and women. Also look for cemeteries located in or near military bases and be aware that some sites are national memorials and not just for those from a local area. Some memorials commemorate just those who died from a particular industry such as railway employees. Also consult The War Graves Photographic Project ... more

  • Period: 1300 - Onwards

    Summary

    Records of apprenticeship and employment of watermen and lightermen. Watermen were licensed to navigate vessels and carry passengers in vessels called wherries whilst lightermen unloaded cargo from ships into smaller barges and then into the quayside for unloading. As the docks developed allowing ships to unload directly at the dockside, the lightermen were used to transport goods from dock to ... more

  • Period: 1200 - Onwards

    Summary

    Wales has been incorporated into England since the Acts of Union of 1536 and 1542. Before the Acts of Union, Wales fell under the rule of England following the defeat and death of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd by the forces of King Edward I in 1283 thus ending the rule of Wales by the Welsh Prince. Most Welsh research follows the same pattern as that of England including the main building blocks of ... more

  • Period: 1898 - 1904

    Summary

    Records from the Wesleyan Methodist Twentieth Century Fund (Million Guinea Fund) established in 1898 to mark the centenary of John Wesley's death. The roll includes the names of more than 1,025,000 donors, including children. In 1909 the fund was finally closed. Donations could also be made in memory of a deceased loved one. Some of the funds were used to build the Methodist Central Hall, opened ... more

  • Period: 1848 - 1849

    Summary

    A list of over 80,000 names of those who called for the release of William Smith O'Brien , the man who instigated a nationalist revolt during the great famine. The petition provides a credible census substitute and can be used to cross check names found in the Griffith's Valuation. The petition includes around 10,000 names from England. The petition remained largely unknown and unused ... more

  • Period: 1500 - Onwards

    Summary

    Details of legacies left by the deceased. Before 1858, probate was dealt with by Church of Ireland courts, either the Prerogative Court, the Diocesan court or the Consistorial Court for which indexes are available. After 1858 probate was dealt with by a new civil court known as the Principal Registry based in Dublin and a number of regional District Probate Registries. Admons or Letters of ... more

  • Period: 1250 - 1858

    Summary

    Details of legacies left by the deceased and proved by one of the 300 or so ecclesiastical (church) courts or courts under 'peculiar' jurisdiction. The process of carrying out the terms of the will was the responsibility of the executor or executrix appointed by the deceased as detailed in the will. Before this could happen the will had to be proved (‘approved’) by persuading a court ... more

  • Period: 1858 - Onwards

    Summary

    Details of legacies left by the deceased. Wills and Admons after 1858 were proved in a single national court known as the Principal Probate Registry covering England and Wales. A will must be proved to allow the named executor to distribute the legacies. A grant of 'Administration' or Admon indicates that the deceased did not leave a valid will which enabled family members to dispose of the ... more

  • Period: 1514 - Onwards

    Summary

    Details of legacies, known as testaments, left by the deceased and proved in a variety of courts. There was no legal requirement to leave a will and few did and in many cases the deceased's estate was settled and could easily be distributed without a testament thus leaving no documents. Essentially a will is a legal document that allows the testator the ability to leave belongings to nominated ... more

  • Period: 1696 - 1851

    Summary

    Lists of people liable to pay a tax on each window in a dwelling. The tax was introduced by William III (of Orange) as a replacement to the much despised hearth tax . The windows tax was collected at the same time as the house tax which imposed a flat rate tax per dwelling initially at two shillings per house. Houses with between ten and twenty windows paid an additional window tax of four ... more

  • Period: 1690 - 1948

    Summary

    Records from the workhouse mostly relating to those created after the introduction of the Poor Law Amendment Act (New Poor Law) of 1834. The Act established poor law unions composed of about six parishes. Each union had to set up a workhouse to house the poor administered by a Boards of Guardians elected by ratepayers. The workhouse was headed by the master and matron and employed medical ... more

  • Period: 1838 - 1940

    Summary

    Records from the workhouse mostly relating to those created after the introduction of the Poor Law Unions in 1838. The workhouse system was established in Ireland following the introduction of the Work House Act of 1838. The act created 137 poor law unions administered by Boards of Guardians based on the English system which began in 1834. The Boards of Guardians were elected by the ratepayers ... more

  • Period: 1950 - Onwards

    Summary

    Memorial books written by surviving former residents of Jewish communities, towns and villages (shtetls) destroyed during the Holocaust. The accounts provide a history of destroyed communities and contain names of Jewish leaders, events, stories, photos and memories. Many include necrologies which are lists of those that died. Most books are in the mother tongue of the author and could be ... more

Contacts (38 results)

  • Founded in 1968, the association aims to promote and maintain high standards of professionalism amongst those working as genealogists and researchers with members operating under a code of practice. A database of members available at the website. The Association works in partnership with The Association of Scottish Genealogists and Researchers in Archives . ... more

  • The society seeks to help British Baptists understand their heritage and history. They assist the Regent's Park College in collecting Baptist archive material. The society publishes the Baptist Quarterly which contains many articles dealing with Baptist history with some editions available to browse online here and here . It also publishes a range of books dealing with Baptist history. The ... more

  • The Institute holds records particularly relevant to those with an interest in Yorkshire and northern England. Holdings include records of baptisms, marriages and burials including Bishops' Transcripts, pre-1858 wills and administrations, marriage bonds and allegations, church court records, tithe awards, maps, school records, hospital records, local business records and records from local ... more

  • The British Library holds a collection of family history related material including pedigrees, title deeds, electoral registers, maps, gazetteers, directories and correspondence as well as the India Office Records . The British Library Newsroom (formerly the British Library Newspaper Reading Room at Colindale) is a division of the British Library based at St Pancras, London. The reading ... more

  • The official body, established in 1483, is responsible for granting new coats of arms and regulating their use in England and Wales. The library holds the lists of these grants and many registered pedigrees which were used to support the granting of a new coat of arms or for proving a hereditary right to bear arms. The original Heraldic Visitation records covering 1530 to 1688 are housed at ... more

  • The library houses an extensive range of books and manuscripts on the history of protestant nonconformity in England and Wales. The library was established in the name of Dr. Daniel Williams a Presbyterian minister who died in 1716 and was buried at the dissenters burial ground at Bunhill Fields in London. His will stipulated that a trust be set up which, amongst other things, would establish ... more

  • A Trinity College company based in the Trinity Technology and Enterprise Centre, Dublin, Ireland providing a range of services from genealogical research to publishing of genealogical data including wills, Dublin city censuses, tithe defaulters and Monumental Inscriptions. They publish the Counties in Time CD which contains samples of almost 1000 documents held in the National Archives of ... more

  • The archive, formerly The National Monuments Record until 2012, is the public archive of the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England. The Archive includes records from many different organisations which the commission inherited or acquired such as the  Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England (RCHME), the National Buildings Record (NBR), National Library of ... more

  • The genealogical library located in Salt Lake City, Utah is operated by the Church of Latter Day Saints or Mormons (LDS). The library catalogue is available at the FamilySearch Catalog which allows users to search the catalog of genealogical materials (including books, online materials, microfilm, microfiche, and publications) made available by FamilySearch. Many items can be ordered for ... more

  • The FFHS is an educational charity representing over 220 family history societies worldwide with the emphasis on England and Wales. Not all family history societies are affiliated to the Federation, however a number of overseas and Irish societies are affiliated. Databases of member society material is available through a partnership deal with Findmypast. The federation also hosts their own ... more

  • The office, which is part of the Identity and Passport Service , has been responsible for the civil registration of births, marriages and deaths in England and Wales since 1 July 1837. The index can be searched in person at various locations in England and Wales and at various online sites (See the guide Research your family history using the General Register Office for full details.) Once ... more

  • The National Records of Scotland was created on 1 April 2011 by the amalgamation of the National Archives of Scotland (NAS) and General Register Office for Scotland (GROS). National Records of Scotland (NRS) combines the work of the two bodies, including the ScotlandsPeople family history website and centre. The office has been responsible for the registration of civil births, marriages and ... more

  • The library hold books, records and other ephemeral material covering London's history. The library also holds material specific to the diocese of London, St. Paul's Cathedral archives, the City wards and parishes and the City of London livery company records. Parish registers, marriage licences and probate records are held at the London Metropolitan Archives . Estate and family papers and ... more

  • The museum covers the period from WWI onwards and its main holdings include regimental histories, service journals and lists, rolls of honour, grave registers, cemetery plans, maps, photo archive, diaries and newspapers. Guides to tracing military and Merchant Navy ancestry and using the collections for research are available at the website . The museum catalogue is available at Collections ... more

  • The Institute of Heraldic and Genealogical Studies is an educational charity that offers courses in various aspects of genealogy and heraldry including the Certificate and Higher Certificate in Genealogy and the Diploma in Genealogy. In addition to the courses the institute offers a selection of day, evening and weekend courses aimed at the family historian. They also have an extensive library ... more

  • The Irish Family History Foundation operates as the co-ordinating body for a network of local county genealogy centres covering all of Ireland. The Foundation operates the website www.rootsireland.ie which provides online access to records held by individual centres. The main computerised records include parish baptism, marriage and burial registers, civil birth, marriage and death registers, ... more

  • The Irish Genealogical Research Society, based in London, encourages and promotes the study of Irish genealogy and collects books and manuscripts of genealogical value. The recourses are of most use for pre-1850 Irish ancestral research. The library's holdings include: §  Family histories and pedigrees. §  Directories. §  County, town, diocesan and ... more

  • The Jewish Genealogical Society of Great Britain (JGSGB), formed in 1992, promotes and encourages the study of Jewish genealogy. The society assists all those tracing the family history of their Jewish ancestors. The society encourages Jewish genealogical education and research and promote the indexing, transcription and preservation of old records. The extensive library is located in the ... more

  • The library founded in 1610 is the main repository for the archives of the Archbishops of Canterbury and for the history of the Church of England. The holdings include published copies of Church of England parish registers for the City of London, Hertfordshire, Middlesex, Surrey and Sussex; bishops transcripts for the London area; a few registers and transcripts for churches outside the ... more

  • Founded in 1788, the Linen Hall is Belfast's oldest library. The collections include: The Blackwood and Greeves pedigrees and other Ulster pedigrees and family histories BMD indexes extracted from the Belfast News Letter, 1737-1863 and 1945-1960 Parish registers Monumental inscriptions Will indexes Servicemen killed in WWI Militia lists Griffiths Valuation School & university ... more

  • The Archive's holdings cover the former County of London and Middlesex which were both established in 1889. The County of London, administered by the London County Council , was formed from the metropolitan or ‘central’ areas of the ancient counties of Middlesex, Kent and Surrey (Lambeth, Southwark, Newington and Wandsworth). The remaining areas of Middlesex survived as a small ... more

  • The Mitchell library and Family History Centre houses major resources to trace family history mainly in Glasgow and Strathclyde but also throughout Scotland. The holdings include: Business records Church records Census returns Directories Divorces Election registers Land ownership records Maps Monumental inscriptions Newspapers and periodical collections Old Parish Registers ... more

  • The archives in the Modern Records Centre relate principally to industrial relations. They include the historical records of trade unions , friendly societies , employers' associations and a variety of political organisations and pressure groups. Amongst others, they are the official home to the archives of the Trades Union Congress, the Transport and General Workers Union and the ... more

  • The National Archives of Ireland holds many of the records which are relevant to Irish genealogy and local history. However, almost all pre-1922 records were destroyed by the 1922 shelling of the Public Record Office located in the Four Courts building in Dublin, marking the beginning of the civil war. The National Archives of Ireland contains the surviving records previously held by the Public ... more

  • The library holds copies of most surviving Roman Catholic parish registers up to 1880. Consult the List of Parish Registers held by the library which gives the covering dates of parish registers for each parish. Other holdings include: Griffith's Valuation Tithe Applotment books Directories Newspapers Government papers Maps Photos Estate papers and other manuscripts The ... more

  • The library houses collections of Scottish manuscripts, maps, books, newspapers and magazines. More specifically for the genealogist there are Old Parish Registers, census returns, Monumental Inscriptions, trade and street directories, army and navy lists, emigrant lists and graduation rolls. Online maps are available from the web site at www.nls.uk/maps as well as an online catalogue at ... more

  • The main holdings of the National Library of Wales includes: GRO indexes to births, marriages and deaths Census returns with some indexes and transcriptions Wills and admons proved in the Welsh church courts (1543-1858) Parish registers from nearly 500 parishes, diocesan records and all Bishops Transcripts from Welsh dioceses Nonconformist records Poor law records Electoral registers ... more

  • The museum holds books, manuscripts, photos and artefacts relating to maritime history. The Caird Library, founded in 1936, is primarily used by those researching links with the Royal Navy or Merchant Navy and includes a collection of Masters' Certificates, Marine Society apprentice registers 1772-1950 and Crew Lists. The library contains a wealth of printed sources including charts, maps and ... more

  • The National Records of Scotland was created on 1 April 2011 by the amalgamation of the National Archives of Scotland (NAS) and General Register Office for Scotland (GROS). National Records of Scotland (NRS) combines the work of the two bodies, including the ScotlandsPeople family history website and centre. The new website is under construction but until this is ready please access the ... more

  • The National Register of Archives for Scotland, established in 1945, forms a part of the National Archives of Scotland . It compiles a record of collections of private papers in Scotland, to encourage their care, and to make information about them available to researchers and others. The Register has over 4,200 lists or 'surveys' describing papers held by private individuals and families, ... more

  • The archive holds the records of House of Lords and the House of Commons dating from 1497. The archived material includes acts, bills, private acts , petitions, protestation returns , deposited plans and naturalizations . Consult chancery records for earlier parliamentary records. A number of lists or returns of Roman Catholics can be found in the archives. Private Acts were used, ... more

  • The Public Record Office of Northern Ireland (PRONI) holds the official archives of public records in Northern Ireland including those from government departments and ministries non-departmental public organisations such as courts, schools and hospitals. In addition a number of private archives have been deposited with PRONI. A series of information leaflets is available at the website ... more

  • The library holds the Church of Ireland's main archive including original surviving parish registers of baptisms, marriages (including marriage banns) and burials. The archive also holds lists and biographies of Church of Ireland clergy, copy wills, pedigrees, vestry minutes and deeds. However, many original records were destroyed by the destruction of The Public Record Office in 1922. A ... more

  • The RCAHMS collects, records and interprets information on the architectural, industrial, archaeological and maritime heritage of Scotland. A series of Guides for Researchers at the website explains the work of the commission and how to use the various services. For an overview of the collections see the section What We Hold . The RCAHMS databases are the gateway into the online, ... more

  • The ScotlandsPeople Centre is the official government resource for family history research. They provide access to the Scottish birth, death, marriage and census records, Catholic parish registers, Coats of Arms, valuation rolls, wills and testaments. ScotlandsPeople Centre is partnership between the National Records of Scotland and the Court of the Lord Lyon. The National Records of Scotland ... more

  • The Society offers research material, guidance and support for those interested in family history. It houses an extensive library covering all aspects of genealogical research, including copies of many parish registers. The online library catalogue is available at www.sog.org.uk/search-records/full-library-catalogue . The Society journal The Genealogists Magazine is published in March, June, ... more

  • The National Archives (TNA) is the main repository for the archives of UK government departments, courts of law and other national bodies but not those held in private and family hands. TNA was established in 2003, merged from a number of organisations which included the Public Record Office (PRO) formed 1838, the Historical Manuscripts Commission (formerly the Royal Commission on Historical ... more

  • The library was founded on the collections formed by Henry Wellcome (1853-1936), the pharmaceutical entrepreneur. After his death his collections were bequeathed to the Wellcome Trust which oversees the library. The holdings includes books, manuscripts, archives, films and photos on the history of medicine from the earliest times to the present day. Other key resources include: ... more

Aids (7 results)

  • Period: Unknown - Onwards

    Summary

    The site provides access to The National Archives' official Non-Parochial BMD registers in association with S & N Genealogy . The registers record baptism and burials and a few marriages maintained by nonconformist groups that were independent of the established Church of England. The registers were handed in to the General Register Office (GRO) in 1840 following a request by the ... more

  • Period: 900 - Onwards

    Summary

    Online catalogues prove a convenient way of searching across catalogues covering a variety of repositories and organisations. Searches can be made on a person, subject, place, company name or organisation and can be used as a starting point as a way of gathering initial information. When considering a search it is important to make a distinction between published printed materials such as books, ... more

  • Period: 1914 - 1900

    Summary

    The Debt of Honour Register records and commemorates the names of some 1.7 million men and women from all three services killed in the two world wars and others who died up to 31 December 1947. The register is produced by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) which cares for military cemeteries worldwide. The Resister also includes merchant sailors as well as civilian casualties from ... more

  • Period: 1500 - 1844

    Summary

    The site, created by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), contains historical transcriptions of interest to the genealogist and family historians. The Historical Record Collections (HRC) includes records from all over the world but is best known for the transcripts of baptisms, marriages and deaths extracted from Anglican/Church of England parish registers and ... more

  • Period: 1665 - 1914

    Summary

    Online access to the publication of official notices, including name changes, naturalisations, company and individual bankruptcies and medal awards. The site offers online searchable access to thousands of issues from the London, Edinburgh and Belfast Gazettes. The London Gazette is Britain's oldest continuously published newspaper published each working day by The Stationery Office (TSO) on ... more

  • Period: 1250 - Onwards

    Summary

    The Manorial Documents Register (MDR) is a catalogue and register of known surviving manorial court documents across Britain, identifying the nature and location of the records. The register was established in 1926 following the abolition of copyhold tenure in 1922 and is held at The National Archives on behalf of the Master of Rolls. Many people still had an interest in copyhold lands and would ... more

  • Period: 1000 - 1910

    Summary

    The site contains online access to indexes and scans of historical books and original printed documents relating to families in the British Isles and the colonies. The range of sources include marriage licences, probate abstracts, parliamentary papers including state papers domestic and private bills, abstracts of bankrupts, pedigrees and extracts from the Gentleman's Magazine. The entries ... more