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Australia (Emigration)

Nature of Source

Records generated from those leaving the UK for Australia. The majority of people who migrated did so either voluntarily or were forced against their will because of religious persecution or for economic reasons. Others were encouraged/assisted to move from their country of origin.

Australia was discovered by the Dutch in the 1660s and was claimed for the British Crown in 1770.

The family history links between Britain and Australia began with the transportation of criminals originally sentenced to death but who had their sentences commuted to transportation. Initially criminals (including many women) were transported to the American colonies but after America attained independence in 1776, Australia became established as penal colony. The First Fleet of eleven ships sailed from Britain on 13 May 1787 carrying 1,500 convicts, soldiers and sailors. A second fleet arrived at Sydney Cove in 1789 and a third arrived in Sydney in 1791. A list of convicts from the First Fleet can be found online here, from the Second Fleet here and from the Third here. The final consignment of convicts arrived in Western Australia in 1868.

Useful records for family historians generated by the convict system include ‘Tickets of Leave’ which were issued to convicts for good behaviour and allowed him to spend time away from the prison colony until the sentence had expired; ‘Certificates of Freedom’ issued as proof that the convict had served his sentence; ‘Conditional Pardons’ generally issued to a convict serving a life sentence which granted freedom to the convict as long as he remained within the colony; ‘Absolute Pardons’ issued to convicts with a complete remittance on their sentence who were free to move beyond the colony and even return to Britain.

Criminal sources held in Britain should also be consulted for more details on a transported convict.

The level of criminal transportation declined towards the mid-19th century and ceased completely by 1868. Many emigrated to Australia especially New South Wales as Free Settlers seeking a better life and better economic opportunities, whilst others emigrated to Australia in the Gold Rush which began in 1851. Colonies of free settlers were established in South Australia (1836), Victoria (1851) and Western Australia (1829). Some people such as paupers or civil servants were provided with financial support (assisted passage) by the government to settle in Australia. In the 19th century, single women such as spinsters and widows who were represented in large numbers were encouraged to migrate to Australia to find better prospects than remaining in Britain. Other women in professions such as teaching and nursing were also encouraged to make a new life in the colonies.

In addition to the voluntary and involuntary migration of adults from Britain, many children ranging from as young as three years old up to the age of fourteen were sent overseas unaccompanied and without parental consent to the colonies. Canada was a much used destination in the later part of the 19th century, replaced by Australia from the 1930s. Charitable institutions such as Dr Barnados facilitated the sending of the so called ‘British Home Children’ away from Britain ostensibly as a means of bettering the life chances of the youngsters. The practise ended in 1967 when the last child was sent to Australia by Barnardo's.

In 1901 the separate colonies established the Commonwealth of Australia with a national parliament and an executive headed by a prime minister. For much of the 20th century immigration was actively encouraged by the Australian government. Australia is governed on a federal basis with each state enjoying a high degree of autonomy. Therefore only national records are archived at the National Archives of Australia (NAA) with each state maintaining its own archives.

The commencement dates of civil registration differs in each state with the records held in the state archives. A Fact Sheet from the NAA explains the process and who to contact. Many of the initial civil registers were continuations of the church register.

The following lists the commencement dates of civil registration for each state: Tasmania, 1839; South Australia, 1842; Western Australia, 1842; Victoria, 1853; Queensland, 1856; New South Wales, 1856; Northern Territory, 1870; Australian Capital Territory, 1911. Some indexes and digital images of civil registers and other material is available online at the web sites of the individual state archives.  A listing of material available at the state archives can be found at Cora Num's Australian gateway site.

Under privacy laws all census returns since 1901 containing data on individuals are destroyed once the statistics have been compiled. Census material and general musters exist for the states and territories before this date. The state archives hold remaining census material with some returns also held the NAA. Some censuses only list convicts whilst others also contain details of free settlers. A list of Australian censuses and musters can be found here.

Most wills were proved at the probate registry located in each state and date from around 1800. Land records date from 1788 and include land privately bought and landed granted to settlers by the government. A research guide is available from Society of Australian Genealogists and a site containing links to Maps, Place Names and Land Records is available here.

Passenger lists form an important part of Australian research but most lists from British ports only survive from 1890. The records of arrival lists at Australian ports are held at the NAA and state archives. The NAA Fact Sheet ‘Tracing ancestors in the National Archives’ provides guidance on using and finding passenger lists. Two Research Guides, ‘Shipping records’ and ‘Ships and voyages’, from the Society of Australian Genealogists also help locate the records. Information on immigration vessels and other shipping material is held by the Australian National Maritime Museum

It was not until 1901 that the country assumed responsibility for defence. Before this the defence of the separate colonies was undertaken by the British Army and Royal Navy. Australia had developed its own naval force from the 1880s under the auspices of the Royal Navy but by 1913 had become fully independent. The Royal Australian Air Force (formerly The Australian Flying Corp) came into existence in 1912. Digitised copies of service records can be searched and viewed at NAA’s online RecordSearch. Consult the individual Fact Sheets for each service to find out the scope of the coverage and for contact details of service records not held at NAA. Service records of those that served in Australia's defence forces and the Merchant Navy during WWII can be found at the World War Two Nominal Roll website. The Australian War Memorial site offers a facility called Research a Person which allows for name searches across all their databases including various Rolls and Honours and Awards.

British subjects were automatically given full citizenship rights in Australia and Australians were considered British subjects until 1984. An earlier Nationality and Citizenship Act of 1948 for the first time created the concept of Australian nationality. Applications for naturalisation or denization for those born outside Britain or the British Empire are held at state archives until 1903 and at NAA from 1903. A Research Guide from the Society of Australian Genealogists is available here.

Passengers that paid their own fare were described as 'unassisted' and those that arrived under a sponsorship scheme were known as 'assisted' passengers'. It was possible for the wives of transported convicts to accompany their husbands with the petitions held at The National Archivesis series PC 1/67-92 and HO 12 with indexes of persons and subjects in HO 14. Also consult applications for pardons and clemency.

See also
Emigration Records (Including Scotland)
Emigration Records (Ireland)
Passenger Lists
Transported Convicts

Where Found

The National Archives (HO 11, Convict Transportation Registers; HO 10, Convict records including a convict census of 1828, lists of male and female convicts and former convicts and other records. Records within series HO 10 and HO 11are available to download free of charge as part of the Digital Microfilm project; CO 201, Colonial Office Correspondence; CO 202, New South Wales Entry Books; CO 207, Records of the Superintendent of Convicts in New South Wales; C 360 & CO 369, New South Wales Register of Correspondence; CO 384, Emigration Original Correspondence; CO 385, Emigration Entry Books)
National Archives of Australia (National records mainly since 1901 and copies of some records kept at The National Archives in England)
National Library of Australia (Starting your research)
Australian National Maritime Museum
Mitchell Library, Sydney (Includes many copies of TNA material)
State Archives
State Libraries
Society of Australian Genealogists (Collections include: Naturalisation indexes, probate records, pedigrees, monumental inscriptions, parish registers. Some material is available online)
Member organisations of the Australasian Federation of Family History Organisations
Society of Genealogists (Birth, marriage and death indexes up to 1900; convict lists; directories, voter lists; MIs; probate records and others)  
Merseyside Maritime Museum (Maritime Archives and Library: Liverpool was one of the main gateways for emigration from the UK to Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, USA and Canada during the 19th and 20th centuries. The library hold a number of sources for emigrant research including passenger tickets, correspondence and other ephemera, ship registers, diaries and letters and sailing information. A series of detailed information sheets dealing with emigration are available at the web site)

Period Covered

1788 - Onwards

Genealogical Value

Birth Certificate
Name, date and place of birth and sex of child; Parent’s names including mother’s maiden name; Parent’s age and place of birth and place and date of marriage; Father’s occupation;
Name, relationship and address of informant.
Marriage Certificate
Names, occupations, addresses, ages, places of birth, status, of bride and groom; Date and place of marriage; Names of parents and witnesses.
Death Certificate
Name, occupation, age, place of birth and place and date of marriage of the deceased; Date and place of burial; Occasionally parent’s names; Length of residence in Australia and where; Name of spouse and names and ages of living children; Father’s occupation and mother’s maiden name; Name and relationship of informant.

Further References

Brown, Kevin. Passage to the World: The Emigrant Experience 1807-1940: Seaforth Publishing, 2013

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Burn, John Southerden. The Fleet Registers: Comprising the History of Fleet Marriages: Rivingtons, 1833 (Available to view online or download at Google Books or the Internet Archive)

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Chambers, Margaret. Finding Families: The Guide to the National Archives of Australia for Genealogists: National Archives of Australia/Hale & Iremonger, 1998

 

Chandler, Jennifer. The Transports Are Here: Convicts and the Colony A-Z: Genealogical Society of Queensland, 1996 (Other titles from the Convict Connections series can be found at the website of the Genealogical Society of Queensland)

 

Fidlon, Paul G. & Ryan, R J (eds). The First Fleeters: The First Fleeters: a comprehensive listing of convicts, marines, seamen, officers, wives, children, and ships: Australian Documents Library, 1981

 

Foy, Karen. Ancestors On The Move : A History of Overseas Travel: The History Press, 2014

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Foy, Karen. Family History For Beginners: The History Press, 2011

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Gillen, Mollie. The Founders of Australia: A Biographical Dictionary of the First Fleet: Library of Australian History, 1989

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Haines, Robin. Life and Death in the Age of Sail: The Passage to Australia: University of Washington Press, 2006

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Harper, Marjory & Constantine, Stephen. Migration and Empire: Oxford University Press, 2014

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Hawkings, David. Bound for Australia: A Guide to the Records of Transported Convicts and Early Settlers: The History Press, 2012

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Kershaw, Roger. Migration Records: A Guide for Family Historians: The National Archives, 2009

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Kershaw, Roger & Pearsall, Mark. Family History on the Move: Where Your Ancestors Went and Why: The National Archives, 2006

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Ryan, R J (ed). The Second Fleet Convicts: a comprehensive listing of convicts who sailed in HMS Guardian, Lady Juliana, Neptune, Scarborough and Surprise Sydney: Australian Documents Library, 1982

 

Ryan, R J (ed). The Third Fleet Convicts : an alphabetical listing of names, giving place and date of conviction, length of sentence, and ship of transportation: Horwitz Grahame, 1983

 

Smith, Babette. Australia's Birthstain: The Startling Legacy of the Convict Era: Allen & Unwin, 2009  Buy Now on Amazon

Vine Hall, Nick. Tracing Your Family History in Australia: A National Guide to Sources: Mount Eliza, 2002

 

Vine Hall, Nick. Tracing Your Family History in Australia: A Bibliography: Mount Eliza, 2002

 


TNA Research Guides:
Births, marriages and deaths of British nationals at sea or abroad
Colonies and dependencies
Colonies and dependencies: further research
Criminal transportees
Criminal transportees: further research
Empire and Commonwealth records held in the UK and overseas
Maps and plans of lands abroad

Websites

www.naa.gov.au/collection/family-history/index.aspx (National Archives of Australia: Family History-Begin your journey)
www.naa.gov.au/collection/fact-sheets/index.aspx (Archives of Australia: Fact sheets including 'Beginning your family history research' and 'Defence and service records held in Melbourne')
www.childmigrantstrust.com (Child Migrants Trust: The trust offers counselling and support  for those affected by child migration as well as information, advice and family research to former child migrants and their families)
www.sag.org.au/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=19&Itemid=99 (Research Guides from the Society of Australian Genealogists)
www.anmm.gov.au/learn/library-and-research (Australian National Maritime Museum: Research Guides)
http://afhc.cohsoft.com.au (Australian Family History Compendium: A variety of categories related to Australian genealogy)
www.cyndislist.com/austnz.htm (Cyndi's List of Australian Genealogy Sites)
http://directory.archivists.org.au/archives (Directory of Archives in Australia)
www.genealogylinks.net/australia (Links collection covering Australia)
www.coraweb.com.au (Australian gateway site for tracing your family history by Cora Num: Links to resources for Australian research)
www.unlockthepast.com.au (Unlock the Past: The site Promotes history, genealogy and heritage in Australia and New Zealand and includes guides and articles relating to Australian and New Zealand research)
www.whodoyouthinkyouaremagazine.com/tutorials/overseas/australian-ancestors (Who Do You Think You Are? Tutorials: Australian ancestors)
www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/maritime/archive/listGuides.aspx (Liverpool Maritime Archives and Library Guide: Emigration to Australia, New Zealand and South Africa)  
www2.sl.nsw.gov.au/databases/#subject40 (Links to electronic resources held by the State Library of New South Wales)
http://trove.nla.gov.au (National Library of Australia Trove: Digitised collections of magazines, journals, newspapers, maps, photos and more)
www.awm.gov.au (Australian War Memorial: Museum and archive of those Australians who have died in war. Site includes a Person Search, Collections Search, a Glossary and an Encyclopedia)
http://australia.gov.au/topics/law-and-justice/births-deaths-and-marriages-registries (Links to Births, Deaths and Marriages Registries)
https://wiki.familysearch.org/en/Australia_Civil_Registration-_Vital_Records (Research Wiki: Australia Civil Registration-Vital Records)
https://wiki.familysearch.org/en/Australia_Census (Research Wiki: Australia Census)
www.exploregenealogy.co.uk/AustralianCensus.html (Australian Census to Trace Family History)
http://censuslinks.com/Australia.html (Links to sites with online census and birth, marriage and death records)
www.telusplanet.net/public/mtoll (Mary's Genealogy Treasures: Immigration, Naturalization, Passenger Lists and Ships)
www.convictcentral.com (Convicts to Australia: A Guide to Researching Your Convict Ancestors. Includes a detailed list of censuses and musters prepared by Graham Lewis)
www.irishfaminememorial.org/en (Irish Famine Memorial: Memorial to the Great Irish Famine and the young women who came from the workhouses or Ireland to Australia between 1848 and 1850)
www.affho.org/news/useful%20websites.pdf (Australasian Federation of Family History Organisations: Australasian Really Useful Information Leaflet)
www.jaunay.com/auscensus.html (List of Australian censuses and musters)
www.jaunay.com/wills.html (How to locate AUS Wills)
www.coraweb.com.au/wills.htm (Wills and Probate Records in Australia; Links to sites offering online access to probate records)
www.coraweb.com.au/mapsland.htm (Links to Maps, Place Names and Land Records)
www.pictureaustralia.org (Search for images detailing Australian society and history from a variety of repositories)
Your Archives Research Guide: Transportation to Australia 1787-1868
www.immigrantships.net (Immigrant Ships Transcribers Guild: 10,000+ Passenger Manifests in 11 Volumes plus numerous other passengers listed in Special Project)
www.naa.gov.au/collection/explore/migration/index.aspx (Research guides and resources from the National Archives of Australia covering immigration to Australia)
http://prov.vic.gov.au/provguide-51 (Public Record Office Victoria: PROVguide 51: Family History Research at PROV)
http://prov.vic.gov.au/provguide-50 (Public Record Office Victoria: PROVguide 50: Ships’ Passenger Lists)
www.proni.gov.uk/index/research_and_records_held/catalogues_guides_indexes_and_leaflets/information_leaflets.htm (Information leaflets Emigration Series: Emigration To U.S.A.; Emigration To Canada; Emigration To Australia)
http://libguides.bgsu.edu/newspapers
(Bowling Green State University Historical Newspapers Online: Links to historical Australia & New Zealand newspapers that are freely available on the Internet)
www.barnardos.org.uk/who_we_are/history/family_history_service.htm (Barnardo’s Family History Service. Basic look up search of the Barnado’s archive plus a full archive package if name is found. Records date from the 1870s and can include those who migrated to Australia or Canada)

Online Databases

Immigration & Convicts
www.ancestry.co.uk (Immigration & Travel. Datasets include: Victoria, Australia, Assisted and Unassisted Passenger Lists, 1839-1923; New South Wales, Australia, Unassisted Immigrant Passenger Lists, 1826-1922; Fremantle, Western Australia, Passenger Lists, 1897-1963; New South Wales, Australia, Assisted Immigrant Passenger Lists, 1828-1896; Queensland, Australia, Passenger Lists, 1848-1912; Western Australia, Australia, Crew and Passenger Lists, 1852-1930; Tasmania, Australia, Passenger Arrivals, 1829-1957; New South Wales, Australia, Departing Crew and Passenger Lists, 1816-1825, 1898-1911)
www.ancestry.co.uk (Australian Convict Collection: Datasets include: England & Wales, Criminal Registers, 1791-1892[Free Index] extracted from TNA series HO 26 and HO 27; First Fleet registers, 1787-1788; New South Wales and Tasmania, Convict Pardons and Tickets of Leave, 1834-1859; New South Wales, Australia, Certificates of Freedom, 1810-1814, 1827-1867; New South Wales, Australia, Convict Registers of Conditional and Absolute Pardons, 1788-1870; New South Wales, Australia, Tickets of Leave, 1824-1867; New South Wales, Assisted Immigrant Passenger Lists, 1828-1896. See other databases under Immigration & Travel which includes convict registers and registers of Free Settlers; Transcriptions from the TNA copy of the New South Wales Census, 1828; Convict Transportation Registers: 1787-1868, including Convict Musters, 1806-1849, Convict Lists, 1787-1834 and Convict Pardons, 1834-1859 extracted from TNA series HO 10)
www.ancestry.co.uk (Australian Immigration Collection 1788-1923: Includes Convict Transportation Registers, Registers of Land Grants and Leases, Passenger Lists, Musters, Census Returns)
www.thegenealogist.co.uk (Convict Lists & Pardons, 1787-1859)
www.thegenealogist.co.uk (General Musters: 1806-1837. These musters provide lists of convicts and ex-convicts)
Assisted Immigrants (Records of assisted immigrants arriving in Sydney, Newcastle, Moreton Bay and Port Phillip, 1839-1896. See web site for other indexes of immigrants
www.findmypast.co.uk (Datasets include: Australia Convict Ships 1786-1849; Convict Transportation Registers, 1787-1870; New South Wales and Tasmania: Settlers and Convicts, 1787-1859; Australia Convict Conditional and Absolute Pardons, 1791-1867; Convicts in South Australia Sentenced to Transportation, 1836-1852; New South Wales, Butts Of Convicts' Certificates Of Freedom, 1827-1867; New South Wales, Convict Arrivals 1788-1842; Australia Convict Conditional and Absolute Pardons 1791-1867;Tasmania [Van Diemen’s Land] Convict records, 1800-1893)
www.findmypast.co.uk (Datasets include; New South Wales Gaol Photographic Description Books, 1871-1969; Victoria Prison Registers 1855-1960; New South Wales Registers Of Convicts' Applications To Marry, 1825-1851)
www.findmypast.co.uk
(Victoria Inward Passenger Lists 1839-1923. This index contains the records of over two million passengers who arrived in Victoria between 1839 and 1923. Passenger lists vary widely in size, length, and level of detail, as there was no standardised format. Some record only a minimum of information about the passengers, while others are quite detailed)
www.findmypast.co.uk (Victoria Outward Passenger Lists 1852-1915. This index contains the records of passengers who, between 1852 and 1915, embarked on journeys departing from Victoria and arriving in ports across Australia and around the world)
www.findmypast.co.uk
(New South Wales Passenger Lists, 1828-1896. The collection contains over 8.5 million records and includes records of both assisted and unassisted passengers)
www.findmypast.co.uk (South Australia, Passenger Lists 1847-1886. This is an index of South Australian passenger lists, consisting mainly of British immigrants arriving in South Australia under assisted passage schemes)
www.findmypast.co.uk (Scotland Prison Registers Index, 1828-1884. Index of prison registers from the Scottish Borders Prison Registers held at the National Archives of Scotland and transcribed by Graham and Emma Maxwell)
www.findmypast.co.uk (1881 British Census, Crew and Passengers on Ships Arriving in New South Wales. Discover your ancestor missing from the 1881 British census in this index of crew and passengers arriving in Sydney, Australia from January to March of 1881)
www.immigrantships.net (Immigrant Ships Transcribers Guild: 10,000+ Passenger Manifests in 11 Volumes plus numerous other passengers listed in Special Project)
http://prov.vic.gov.au/provguide-23 (Public Record Office Victoria: PROVguide 23: Digitised Records and Online Indexes. Datasets include: Index to Unassisted Inward Passenger Lists to Victoria 1852-1923; Index to Assisted British Immigration 1839-1871; Index to Outward Passengers to Interstate, U.K. and Foreign Ports, 1852-1908)
www.saghs.org.au/shipping.htm (South Australian Genealogy & Heraldry Society. Lists of vessels arriving in South Australia for which records survive 1836-1886.)
www.findmypast.co.uk (Travel & Migration Records: Datasets include Outbound Passenger Lists,1890-1960. The dataset includes passenger lists in extracted from TNA series BT 27 and includes long-haul voyages to destinations outside Britain, Europe and the Mediterranean. Countries that feature strongly include Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, South Africa and the USA. Irish ports before partition in 1921 and all Northern Irish ports after partition are covered. The lists also include those travelling onwards from British ports)
www.findmypast.com.au (Passenger List Records. Datasets include: Victoria: Passenger Lists 1846-1899; Passenger Lists leaving UK 1890-1960; Emigrants seeking free passage to South Australia 1836–1841)
www.ozships.net (Transcribed passenger, convict and crew lists of vessels arriving and departing from Australia and New Zealand, 1788-1968. The site also includes details of the ships and shipping movements. Much of the site's content is available on CD)
www.irishfaminememorial.org/en/orphans
(Famine Orphan Girl Database: Details of young women who came to the Australian colonies during the famine years of 1848 to 1850 who were sent from the workhouses throughout all 32 counties Ireland. A separate database lists the ships that carried the orphans to Australia)
Birth, Marriage and Death
http://prov.vic.gov.au/provguide-23 (Public Record Office Victoria: PROVguide 23: Digitised Records and Online Indexes. Datasets include: Indexes to births, deaths and marriages. These database indexes are available on the public access computers in PROV’s reading rooms)
http://prov.vic.gov.au/provguide-23 (Index to Victoria Wills, Probate and Administration Records, 1841-2013. Search for people who may have had estates that went through the probate process in the Supreme Court of Victoria)
www.qld.gov.au/law/births-deaths-marriages-and-divorces/family-history-research (Queensland Historical Index: Online access to indexes and original register images covering Queensland historical births, 1829-1914; deaths, 1829-1983 and marriages, 1829-1938 records)
Familysearch.org (Historical Record Collections: Australia)
www.ancestry.co.uk (Australia Birth, Marriage and Death Index, 1788-1985)
www.findmypast.co.uk (Western Australia Birth Index; Western Australia Marriage Index; Western Australia Death Index; New South Wales Births, Marriages and Deaths, 1788-1945; Northern Territory birth, marriage and death indexes; South Australia Births, Marriages and Deaths, 1842-1972; Rookwood Cemetery Sydney Memorial Inscriptions;Tasmania Births, marraiges and Deaths, 1803-1933; Queensland Births 1829-1919; Queensland Marriages 1829-1939; Queensland deaths 1829-1964; Victoria Burials & Memorials, 1828-1994; Victoria Cemeteries, 1856-2005)
www.ryersonindex.org (The Ryerson Index: This is a free index to death notices appearing in Australian newspapers. The date range covered extends from the Sydney Gazette of 1803 up to newspapers published within the last week or so. The Index also includes many funeral notices, and some probate notices and obituaries)
www.worldvitalrecords.com (Australian Newspaper Index: The Ryerson Index is an index to death notices appearing in current Australian newspapers. It also includes some funeral notices, probate notices and obituaries)
http://austcemindex.com (Australian Cemeteries Index: Search over  2 million cemetery headstone or plaque inscriptions online)
http://austcemindex.com/bdmsch (NSW Births Deaths & Marriages Search)
http://histfam.familysearch.org (FamilySearch Community Trees: Pedigrees and family names extracted from a variety of sources including birth, marriage, and death indexes)
https://billiongraves.com (BillionGraves: Family history database for records and images from the world's cemeteries. Members of the public can collect photos of headstones in a local cemetery with iOS, Android and Windows mobile apps and then upload the photo and headstone transcription. BillionGraves records are also available to search at FamilySearch)
www.findmypast.co.uk (Australia Billion Graves Cemetery Index. Are your ancestors buried in Australia? Have you been unable to locate precisely where they were buried? Search this extensive record set to find the exact location of their burial as well as their birth and death dates)
Census
www.records.nsw.gov.au/state-archives/indexes-online (The State Archives NSW Government: Indexes Online including the 1841 Census head of household index, convict records, probate and land records)
www.findmypast.co.uk (New South Wales Census, 1841 [Fragments only], 1891, 1901; Northern Territory Census, 1881-1921; South Australia census, 1841)
www.nationalarchives.ie/topics/transportation/search01.html
(Ireland-Australia transportation database: Searchable index of Irish convicts transported to Australia during the years 1780-1868)
www.thegenealogist.co.uk (New South Wales 1828 Census)
Newspapers
http://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper (National Library of Australia Trove: Digitised Australian newspapers from 1803 to 1954 and The Australian Women's Weekly to 1982)
www.elephind.com (Search historic digital newspaper collections using key words and phrases from the US, Australia, Singapore and New Zealand)
www.nla.gov.au/ferg (Australian Periodical Publications 1840-1845: Digitised editions of Australian journals displayed as multipage PDF files)
http://archives.smh.com.au (Sydney Morning Herald Archives, 1955-1990)
www.theoldentimes.com (Historic Newspapers Online: 18th through early 20th century Newspapers from the U. S., England, Scotland, Ireland & Australia)
http://gazette.slv.vic.gov.au (Victoria Government Gazette, 1836-1997)
Military
www.naa.gov.au/collection/explore/defence/service-records/army-wwi.aspx (WWI service records held in series B2455. Using NameSearch you can quickly find the service records of particular individuals including those who served in the Australian Imperial Forces)
www.flickr.com/photos/state-records-sa/sets/72157626501163158 (State Records of South Australia. Images of South Australian soldiers, sailors and nurses serving during the First World War)
http://mappingouranzacs.naa.gov.au (National Archives of Australia Mapping our Anzacs: Browse 375,971 records of service in the Australian Army during World War I according to the person's place of birth or enlistment)
www.navy.gov.au/Publication:Navy_List (Navy List, 1905-1979: Details of the officers of the Australian Navy digitised in PDF format)
www.findmypast.com.au (Royal Naval Division Service Records, 1914-1920: Records of more than 50,000 officers and servicemen who joined the Royal Naval Division or went through the initial training program in London)
www.findmypast.co.uk (Resources include: New South Wales, Government Railways and Tramways Roll Of Honour, 1914-1919; Australian Imperial Force Nominal Roll 1914-1918; Australian Imperial Force Embarkation Roll 1914-1918; New South Wales, Returned Soldier Settlement Miscellaneous Files 1916-1939; New South Wales, Returned Soldiers Settlement Loan Files)
www.thegenealogist.co.uk (Roll of Honour 1915)
Other
www.naa.gov.au/collection/using/search (NAA RecordSearch: Descriptions of records held by the NAA and other repositories, includes NameSearch which can be searched to help find information on a person)
www.findmypast.com.au (Australian & New Zealand Records: Birth, Death & Marriage records for South Australia and the Northern Territory; South Australia Catholic baptisms, 1840-1863; Electoral Rolls; Police and Government Gazettes; Directories; Queensland Crown Land Sales, 1842-1861 and 1860-1911; Queensland Return of Crown Lands, 1854; Australian Imperial Expeditionary Forces Roll of Honour; New South Wales Will Books, 1800-1952; Queensland Wills Index 1857-1940)
http://prov.vic.gov.au/provguide-23 (Public Record Office Victoria: PROVguide 23: Digitised Records and Online Indexes. Datasets include: Indexes to births, deaths and marriages. These database indexes are available on the public access computers in PROV’s reading rooms; Wills, probate and administration records, 1841-1925; Register of Prisoners and Convicts; Lists of Patients in Asylums; Divorce Cause Books, 1861-1924. See web site for details of other digitised resources)
Familysearch.org (Historical Record Collections: Australia)
www.sag.org.au (Society of Australian Genealogists: Databases include Members' Research Interests, NSW Tickets of Leave 1810-1875, Sydney Streets & Electoral Rolls 1903-1984, Soldiers & Marines 1787-1830, NSW Ships' Musters 1816-1825, Primary Records Collection)
www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/learn/history/search-our-collections/sands-directory
(City of Sydney: Sands Sydney, Suburban and Country Commercial Directory. Digitised editions of Sands directory covering 1858-1859 to 1932-1933, except for 1872, 1874, 1878 and 1881. Each edition is available to download or searchable by keyword across all editions)
www.slwa.wa.gov.au/find/guides/wa_history/post_office_directories (The Western Australian Post Office Directories, 1893-1949)
www.ancestry.co.uk (New South Wales, Australia, Industrial School Registers, 1867-1925. This collection includes records from three industrial schools for girls and includes rosters and admission, apprenticeship and discharge records)
www.thegenealogist.co.uk (Brisbane Telephone Directory, 1934; South Wales District Post Office Telephone Directory, 1938; Melbourne Telephone Directory, 1924; Melbourne Telephone Directory, 1934 and 1936; Adelaide Telephone Directory 1931; South Australian Directory 1919; Tasmania Post Office Directory 1929)
www.thegenealogist.co.uk (The Australian Radio Users circa 1940s; Cyclopedia of Victoria Vol 1-3; The Tasmanian Cyclopedia 1931; Australian Biographical Dictionary 1934)

Some indexes and digital images of civil registers and other material is available online at the web sites of the individual state archives.

CD Roms

Ozships (Australian Shipping Arrivals and Departures 1788-1968: Over 100,000 arrivals and departures for Australia and New Zealand including ship's captains, crew, passengers and convicts with details of the ships and shipping movements)
Queensland Family History Society (Commonwealth Electoral Roll, Queensland 1959)
Queensland Family History Society (Queensland Founding Families)
Genealogical Society of Victoria (Index of New South Wales Convict Indents: Index to convicts who arrived in New South Wales, 1788-1842 and an index to the ships that transported them)
Genealogical Society of Victoria (Index to Tasmanian Convicts)
Vine Hall, Nick. Master Index to Ships Pictures in the Mitchell Library, Sydney, Australia: Gould Genealogy, 2006
S & N Genealogy Supplies (A Glance at Australia in 1880: Detailed information on the history, topography, productivity and agriculture of Australia in 1880; Australasian Handbook 1906. This 900-page work details the States of the Australian Commonwealth, plus Tasmania, New Zealand, Fiji and British New Guinea in the year 1906)
Archive CD Books (See the website for full coverage. The collection includes gazetteers, trade directories, Post Office directories and electoral rolls)