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USA/America Sources (Emigration)

Nature of Source

Records generated from those leaving the UK for the United States. The majority of people who migrated did so either voluntarily or were forced against their will because of religious persecution or for economic reasons. Others were encouraged/assisted to move from their country of origin.

The first English colony was established by the Virginia Company of London in Jamestown Virginia in 1607. During the 17th and early 18th centuries, thirteen colonies were established under British control. These thirteen colonies rejected the authority of the British Crown and declared their independence in 1776. This unilateral decision triggered the War of Independence otherwise known as the American Revolution which lasted until 1782. Most of the population of the newly independent states originated from Britain with others from Germany, France, Netherlands and slaves from Africa. Much of the administrative work from colonial times are recorded in State Papers held at The National Archives in Kew.

Those that migrated did so for a variety of reasons. Some colonists took advantage of the business opportunities especially farming and tobacco production. Some 50,000 criminals were transported as an alternative to execution until American independence in 1776. After this date Australia became the main destination for convict resettlement. As many as 300,000 people were sent as bonded or indentured servants. Their passage was paid for as was their maintenance. In return the servant was bound to serve for a fixed period of time usually between three and seven years after which time the person's freedom was granted. Some nonconformists such as Quakers, Methodists and Presbyterians fled to the New World to escape religious persecution at home.

In 1892 Ellis Island opened as an immigration station for those entering into New York State, before closing in 1954. During its time in operation, the centre processed some twelve million immigrants (including over 4 million from Ireland) entering the United States. By the turn of the century legislation was enacted that curtailed the numbers of immigrants allowed to enter the US with heavy restrictions placed on some countries. Before the opening of the Ellis Island centre, immigrants were first processed at Castle Garden, now known as Castle Clinton, from 1855 to 1890 and briefly at Barge Island before Ellis Island opened. Unfortunately in 1897, a fire destroyed many of the Ellis Island buildings and with it the loss of most of the immigration records dating back to 1855.

During British rule the records of births/baptisms, marriages and deaths/burials were kept by the church and these may still be in the custody of the church or have been lodged with the local state archives. There is no central repository of vital records (birth, marriage and death registers). Instead the registers are held in the Office of Vital Statistics or Office of Vital Records in each individual state. Individual states operate their own policy on the level of public access to vital records as well as what information is recorded on the certificates. Marriage registration is administered at county level and therefore the records might be found at county level. Links to each state's Vital Records Office and Archives can be found here. The start date of civil registration in each date varies but date from about 1850 onwards.

A possible option of finding a death, if the person was of retirement age, is to access the centralised index called the Social Security Death Index. The Social Security Administration was established in 1935 and paid benefits only to those with a Social Security Number and who had been receiving benefits. However most of those entered into the index died after 1962. The database is available at www.ancestry.com and www.worldvitalrecords.com and for free at http://ssdi.rootsweb.ancestry.com and at www.familysearch.org.The website Online Searchable Death Indexes & Records contains a directory of links to websites with online death indexes, listed by state and county as well local indexes for obituaries, cemeteries and probate.

Probate developed differently in each colony and state. Therefore wills were proved at different levels and can be found in county courthouses, local probate offices or at state level. Some early colonialists had their wills proved in England at the Prerogative Court of Canterbury and are available at TNA Online Collections. Alternatively they have been indexed in Coldham's 'American Wills and Administrations in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, 1610-1857' and 'American Wills Proved in London, 1611-1775'.

Censuses have been held decennially since 1790 and are the responsibility of the federal authorities. Until 1840, only names of heads of households are recorded, but from 1850 all persons were named. Some pre-1790 colonial population surveys are available which are kept at The National Archives in Kew. Those for the colony of Virginia are available at Virtual Jamestown. Almost the entire 1890 census was destroyed by fire but census substitutes have been compiled from other sources.

Immigration records and passenger lists are a major source for US research. Most ports began formal recording of immigrants from 1820 following federal government instructions for the creation of passenger lists. Two systems of land grants operated in the US. Public land states were grants made by the Federal Government and available online covering 1820 to 1908 and State-land states which were grants made by the state or colony.

Also See
Emigration Records (Including Scotland)
Emigration Records (Ireland)
Maps & Gazetteers
Passenger Lists
Transported Convicts

Where Found

Library of Congress (The online Catalog at http://catalog.loc.gov also includes the Prints and Photographs Online Catalog. Also see the research guide Genealogical Research at the Library of Congress)
National Archives and Records Administration (Post-independence federal records including census returns. The Resources for Genealogists section includes genealogy related articles, research tips and many other resources. View online lectures for genealogists and family historians at the US National Archives YouTube channel)
State Archives
The National Archives, Kew (Holdings include State Papers and the records of the Board of Trade, Colonial Office, Home Office and Treasury and include passenger lists, 1890-1960, medical journals from emigrant ships State Papers and Colonial Office archives)
Society of Genealogists (Printed sources including the 'Passenger and Immigration Lists Index' compiled by P. William Filby; register transcripts; census indexes; directories and others)
Merseyside Maritime Museum (Maritime Archives and Library: Liverpool was one of the main gateways for emigration from the UK to Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, USA and Canada during the 19th and 20th centuries. The library hold a number of sources for emigrant research including passenger tickets, correspondence and other ephemera, ship registers, diaries and letters and sailing information. A series of detailed information sheets dealing with emigration are available at the web site)

Period Covered

1607 - Onwards

Genealogical Value

Names, addresses, occupations.

Birth Certificates
Includes date of birth, birthplace of child’s parents
Marriage Certificates
Includes date of marriage, bride and groom place of birth, names and places of birth of bride and groom’s parents, mother’s maiden names
Death Certificates
Includes date of death, names and places of birth of parents

Further References

Andrews, Charles McLean. Guide to the Materials for American History, to 1783, in the Public Record Office of Great Britain: Carnegie Institution, 1965 (1912) (Available at the Internet Archive)


Brown, Kevin. Passage to the World: The Emigrant Experience 1807-1940: Seaforth Publishing, 2013


Buggy, Joseph. Finding Your Irish Ancestors in New York City: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2014

Buy Now on Amazon

Coldham, Peter Wilson. The Complete Book of Emigrants in Bondage, 1614-1775: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1988 (Listings of transported criminals)


Coldham, Peter Wilson. The Complete Book of Emigrants: 1607-1776, 4 vols: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1987


Darrow, Carol Cook & Winchester, Susan. The Genealogist’s Guide to Researching Tax Records: Heritage Books, 2009 Buy Now on Amazon

Davies, Kenneth Gordon. The Calendar of State Papers, Colonial: North America and the West Indies 1574-1739: HMSO, 1994


Dollarhide, William. New York State Censuses & Substitutes: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2010


Foy, Karen. Ancestors On The Move: A History of Overseas Travel: The History Press, 2014


Foy, Karen. Family History For Beginners: The History Press, 2011


Goodwin, Aaron. New York City Municipal Archives: An Authorized Guide for Family Historians. New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, 2016  

Hait, Michael. Online State Resources: Hait Family History Research Services, 2012


Hotten, John. Original Lists of Persons of Quality Emigrating to America, 1600-1700: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2007 (Available online here and here)


Kershaw, Roger. Migration Records: A Guide for Family Historians: The National Archives, 2009


Kershaw, Roger & Pearsall, Mark. Family History on the Move: Where Your Ancestors Went and Why: The National Archives, 2006


Levitt, Ellen. The Lost Synagogues of Manhattan: Avotaynu, 2013


Levitt, Ellen. The Lost Synagogues of Brooklyn: Avotaynu, 2009


Levitt, Ellen. The Lost Synagogues of The Bronx and Queens: Avotaynu, 2011

 

New York Family History Research Guide and Gazetteer: New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, 2015  

Quillen, Daniel. Mastering Immigration & Naturalization Records: Cold Spring Press, 2011

 

Raimo, John. A Guide to Manuscripts Relating to America in Great Britain and Ireland: A Revision of the Guide Edited in 1961 by B. R. Crick and Miriam Alman: Meckler Books, 1979

 

Szucs, Loretto Denis & Luebking, Sandra Hargreaves (eds). The Source: A Guidebook to American Genealogy: Ancestry Publishing, 2006

 

Thorndale, William & Dollarhide, William. Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses, 1790-1920: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1987

 

The New York Annual Register (Editions available online at Google Books and the Internet Archive)

 



TNA Research Guides:
American and West Indian colonies before 1782
American Revolution
Births, marriages and deaths of British nationals at sea or abroad
Colonies and dependencies: further research
Criminal transportees: further research
Empire and Commonwealth records held in the UK and overseas
Looking for records of a criminal transportee
Looking for records of British colonies and dependencies
Maps and plans of lands abroad

Websites

Vital Records
www.cdc.gov/nchs/w2w.htm (Where to write for vital records, birth, marriage and death)
http://vitalrec.com/guidelines.html (Guidelines for Ordering Vital Records in the United States)
www.vitalrecordsus.com (Vital Records in the United States)
www.deathindexes.com (Online Searchable Death Indexes & Records: Directory of links to websites with online death indexes, listed by state and county)
Census Returns
www.researchguides.net/census/records.htm (U.S. Census Records-The Basics, including links to free online census indexes)
http://c.mfcreative.com/email/campaigns/2012/allcensus/AncestryCensusGuide.pdf (Ancestry.com Learning Center: Follow Your Family With Census Records)
www.genealogyblog.com/?p=24480
(Common Census Questions, by William Dollarhide)
www.cyndislist.com/census.htm (Cyndi's List guide and links to online census returns)
Emigration/Immigration and Naturalization
www.proni.gov.uk/index/exhibitions_talks_and_events/19th_century_emigration_to_the_north_america_online.htm (Online exhibition on emigration to America and Canada hosted by the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland and the Belfast Telegraph)
www.proni.gov.uk/index/research_and_records_held/catalogues_guides_indexes_and_leaflets/information_leaflets.htm (Information leaflets Emigration Series: Emigration To U.S.A.; Emigration To Canada; Emigration To Australia)
www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/maritime/archive/listGuides.aspx
(Liverpool Maritime Archives and Library Guide: Emigration to USA and Canada)
www.bloodandfrogs.com/p/naturalization.html (Naturalization: Lists of all the naturalization record holdings that can be ordered online from the National Archives)
www.telusplanet.net/public/mtoll (Mary's Genealogy Treasures: Immigration, Naturalization, Passenger Lists and Ships)
http://c.mfcreative.com/offer/us/laborday/imm2011_immigrant.pdf (Finding Your Immigrant Ancestors at ancestry.com: Steps to Discovering Your Immigrant Ancestor in the U.S. and the Homeland)
www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2013/fall-winter/west-indies.pdf
(National Archives Publications: Ancestors from the West Indies: A Historical and Genealogical Overview of Afro-Caribbean Immigration, 1900-1930s, by Damani Davis)
www.archives.gov/research/immigration/passenger-arrival.html (U.S. National Archives National Archives: Immigration Records Ship Passenger Arrival Records and Land Border Entries)
www.redstarline.org (Red Star Line Museum. The museum tells the story of the historic transatlantic migration of millions of Europeans from Europe to America on the shipping company Red Star Line and the transit port of Antwerp)
www.germanroots.com/naturalization.html (Links to Online Searchable Naturalization Indexes & Records)
Land and Property
www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~rwguide/lesson29.htm (American Land Records, guide to finding and using land records)
www.lhaasdav.com/land/index.html (Taking The Mystery Out of Land Records by Linda Haas Davenport)
http://genealogy.about.com/od/land_records/Land_Property_Records.htm (Land & Property Records)
www.arphax.com (Arphax Publishing: Publisher of the Family Maps series of Land Patent Books and the Texas Land Survey Maps series)
www.placenames.com
(Place Names. A gazetteer of cities, towns, villages, mountains, hills, rivers, and other place names with their location, latitude, longitude and elevation)
Other
www.fgs.org (Federation of Genealogical Societies: The society represents members of hundreds of genealogical societies across the United States and other nations)
http://c.mfcreative.com/email/newsletters/amu/2014/PDFs/20140114NewYorkStateGuide.pdf (New York State Research Guide: Family History Sources in the Empire State)
http://goo.gl/n8ByID
(Ancestry.com Learning Center: Free State Research Guides. The state research guide series includes historical background, a chronology, helpful information on census and vital record availability, highlighted collection for that place on Ancestry.com, and links to important resources beyond Ancestry.com)
www.archives.gov/publications
(National Archives Publications. Access to online general information leaflets, guides, brochures & pamphlets and research papers)
www.familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/United_States (FamilySearch Research Wiki: United StatesGetting started with United States Research. Also included is a separate guide to New York Genealogy)
http://stevemorse.org (One-step Web pages for enhanced searching of online US sources)
www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/genealogy-notes.html (US research guides from the U.S. National Archives)
www.archives.gov/research/genealogy/topics/index.html (U.S. National Archives Research Topics of Genealogical Interest)
www.archives.gov/research/genealogy/index.html (U.S. National Archives Resources for Genealogists)
www.ancestry.com/wiki (Ancestry.com Family History Wiki. The Wiki was developed to help genealogists find information they need by record type, but also contribute, by editing and adding information. The Wiki includes: The Source: A Guidebook to American Genealogy and the Red Book: American State, County, and Town Sources)
www.loc.gov/rr/genealogy (Library of Congress: Local History & Genealogy Reading Room)
www.loc.gov/coll/nucmc (National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections [NUCMC], catalogue of collections held by repositories across the US)
http://dp.la (Digital Public Library of America. The portal provides innovative ways to search and scan through the united collection of millions of items from libraries, archives, and museums throughout the US)
http://libguides.lib.msu.edu/newspaperguide
(Michigan State University: Guide to Historical Newspaper Databases)
www.virtualjamestown.org (The Virtual Jamestown Archive: History of the Jamestown settlement, the first settled colony)
http://mygenealogyhound.com
(Free site to view thousands of family biographies from early and rare history and genealogy references, browsable by state and county or by family surname)
www.westegg.com/inflation (Inflation Calculator: Convert a U.S. dollar amount for any year from 1800 to 2007 into the equivalent amount, adjusted for inflation)
www.aier.org/research/worksheets-and-tools/cost-of-living-calculator (Cost-of-Living Calculator)
http://sites.google.com/site/onlinedirectorysite (Online Historical Directories Website: Links to online city directories covering Canada, Ireland, United Kingdom and the United States)
http://gis.nyc.gov/doitt/nycitymap (NYCityMap: New York City’s online map portal including online property, building, statistics, and census information)
www.nypl.org/blog/2014/03/28/open-access-maps
(New York Public Library: The Lionel Pincus & Princess Firyal Map Division. Online access to more than 20,000 cartographic works as high resolution downloads, mostly covering the US, but also historical Europe. The website is a parallel snapshot of all maps currently available on the Digital Gallery and can be viewed through the New York Public Library’s Digital Collections page)
www.governmentinfopro.com/PublicRecordsGuide.pdf (Public Records Resources Online: How to Find Everything There Is to Know About "Mr. X")

Online Databases

Census Research
www.familysearch.org (Historical Record Collections: United States federal census, 1850-1940 including other individual State Censuses)
http://1940census.archives.gov (National Archives and Records Administration in partnership with Archives.com: Digitized 1940 federal census records. A name index does not exist for the 1940 census. People can be located by identifying the enumeration district in which they lived in 1940 and then browsing the census population schedules for that enumeration district) 
www.ancestry.co.uk (U.S. Federal Census Collection including the 1940 federal census)
www.ancestry.co.uk
(New York State Records: New York Census & Voter Lists including the census of 1855, 1875, 1892, 1905, 1915 and 1925)
www.findmypast.co.uk (Fully-indexed images and transcriptions of the entire United States Census. Datasets include: US Census 1790, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1890 [fragments only], 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930, 1940; Michigan, State Census 1884; Northern Territory Census)
www.myheritage.com (MyHeritage U.S. Federal Censuses: Full set of USA census records from 1790 to 1930 with free of charge access to the 1940 census)
http://directme.nypl.org (New York Public Library: New York City Telephone Directories Online, 1940 with guidance on using the directory to assist with searches of the 1940 federal census)
www.censusrecords.com (censusrecords.com: Transcriptions and images from the US censuses, 1790-1930)
www.archives.com/census (U.S. Federal Population Census indexes from 1790 to 1930 with images for some years. Other datasets include New York state censuses for the years 1892, 1915 and 1925)
www.archive.org/details/1930_census (Unindexed microfilm copy of the United States 1930 census organised by Enumeration District. If the address is known use the Stephen Morse's 'Obtaining EDs for the Census in One Step' to establish the correct Enumeration District)
Newspapers
http://fultonhistory.com/Fulton.html (Old New York State Historical Newspaper Search: Online data base of old newspapers, historical photos, post cards and genealogy information concerning the Upstate Ny, Fulton NY area)
http://news.google.com/newspapers (Digitised newspaper archive search from the U.S. and Canada for the period 1880 to about 2005. To refine a search, from the search results page that appears, go to Search tools below the search box)
www.newspapers.com (Newspapers.com: Owned by Ancestry.com the site offers more than 800 U.S. digitised and searchable newspapers dating from the late 1700s into the early 2000s ranging from the New York Times to small town and local newspapers throughout the United States)
www.findmypast.com
(US & World Newspaper Collection. Online access to nearly 120 million pages from newspapers published in all 50 states, Washington, D.C., Panama and the Virgin Islands. Titles include a variety of local papers, as well as national publications, including the New York Times and the Washington Post)
www.bl.uk/subjects/news-media (British Library Newspaper Collections Catalogue: Whereabouts of US publications held by the Newspaper Library)
http://search.findmypast.co.uk/search/world-records (US & World newspaper Collection. Online access to nearly 120 million pages from newspapers published in all 50 states. Titles include a variety of local papers, as well as national publications including the New York Times and the Washington Post)
www.elephind.com (Search historic digital newspaper collections using key words and phrases from the US, Australia, Singapore and New Zealand)
www.veridiansoftware.com/collections
(Veridian Newspaper Digital Collections: Links to online digitised newspaper collections held by a number of US universities)
www.archives.com (Access to 110 million newspaper pages in partnership with the Newspaper Archive dating back to 1753 with indexed names)
http://atlnewspapers.galileo.usg.edu/atlnewspapers/search (Digital database providing online access to 14 newspaper titles published in Atlanta from 1847 to 1922)
www.nytimes.com/ref/membercenter/nytarchive.html (New York Times Article Archive)
https://digitalcollections.library.cmu.edu/portal/collections/pjn/index.jsp (Carnegie Mellon University Libraries: Pittsburgh Jewish Newspaper Project: Online access to searchable and digitised editions of Jewish newspapers published in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania composed of the Jewish Criterion [1895-1962], the American Jewish Outlook [1934-1962], the Jewish Chronicle [1962-present], and the Y-JCC series [1926-1975])
www.fold3.com/documents (Fold3 [formerly Footnote.com]: Listing of resources including digitised access to US newspapers)
www.genealogybank.com/gbnk/newspapers (GenealogyBank: US Historical Newspapers 1690-1980)
http://geneseo.advantage-preservation.com
(Old Geneseo newspapers: A public archive of scanned, old newspapers from Geneseo, Illinois between 1856 and 1977)
www.cyndislist.com/newspapers (Cyndi's List links to online newspaper resources)
www.theancestorhunt.com/newspaper-research-links.html (The Ancestor Hunt: Newspaper Research Links: Free historical newspaper links to help you find historical newspaper articles about your ancestors by state and county)
www.theancestorhunt.com/newspapers.html (The Ancestor Hunt: Newspapers!: Free links, tips, about 50 tutorials, and lots of other information and resources to guide and help you search old newspapers)
www.accessible.com/accessible (Accessible Archives: Digitised US newspapers)
http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov (Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers: Free access to digitised pages of newspapers covering a number of states, 1880-1922)
http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/search/titles (U.S. Newspaper Directory, 1690-Present: The directory lists present and historic American newspapers and how to access them)
www.newspaperarchive.com (Searchable access to historic newspapers from the U.S. and the world)
www.smalltownpapers.com
(SmallTownPapers: Browse and search scanned newspaper archive from 1865 up to the current edition)
www.ancestry.com (Historical Newspaper Collection)
www.ancestry.co.uk (Associated Press Collections. The collection includes the Associated Press, Name Card Index to AP Stories, 1905-1990; Associated Press, Service Bulletin, 1904-1927; Associated Press, Stories and Newsfeatures, 1937-1985; Associated Press, Subject Card Index to AP Stories, 1937-1985; Associated Press, The AP World, 1943-2001)
www.worldvitalrecords.com (Newspapers and Periodicals Databases)
www.theoldentimes.com (Historic Newspapers Online: 18th through early 20th century Newspapers from the U. S., England, Scotland, Ireland & Australia)
http://news.nnyln.net (Northern New York Historical Newspapers: Online access to a collection of fifty newspapers)
Immigration
www.ancestry.co.uk (Immigration & Travel Records: Records include passenger arrival records, naturalisation records, border crossings, emigration records, passports, convict transportation records)
www.ancestry.co.uk (U.S. Naturalization Records Indexes, 1794-1995. This database contains indexes to naturalization records, primarily Declarations and Petitions, for various courts)
www.findmypast.co.uk
(United States Naturalization Petitions, 1905-1950. United States Naturalization Petitions contains more than 7.8 million records spanning the years 1905 to 1950. The collection currently covers four states: Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania)
www.ancestry.co.uk (Selected U.S. Naturalization Records - Original Documents, 1790-1974. This database contains images of original naturalization records, primarily Declarations and Petitions, from U.S. District and Circuit courts)
www.ancestry.co.uk (New York State Records: Naturalization Papers, 1799-1847; Naturalization Records, 1882-1944; Alien Depositions of Intent to Become U.S. Citizens, 1825-1871; Naturalization Petitions, 1794-1906; Early New York Naturalizations; Selected Naturalization Records, 1816-1845)
www.ancestry.co.uk (New York Passenger Lists, 1820-1957. This database is an index to the passenger lists of ships arriving from foreign ports at the port of New York from 1820-1957. In addition, the names found in the index are linked to actual images of the passenger lists)
www.castlegarden.org (Immigration Center: Database of information on 11 million immigrants entering New York through Castle Garden between 1820 and 1892 extracted from original ship manifests. Castle Garden, now known as the Castle Clinton National Monument, is located in Battery Park, a waterfront park at the tip of Manhattan. The park, monuments and website is operated by the educational corporation called the Battery Conservancy. Following the closure of Castle Garden in 1890, immigrants were processed at Ellis Island. Enhanced browsing and searching of the database can be carried out at Stephen Morse's ' One Step' Search Pages)
Familysearch.org (Migration & Naturalization: Various passenger lists including: New York Book Indexes to Passenger Lists, 1906-1942; New York Passenger Arrival Lists [Ellis Island], 1892-1924; New York Passenger Lists [Castle Garden], 1820-1891; New York, New York Passenger and Crew Lists, 1909, 1925-1957; New York, New York, Index to Passenger Lists, 1820-1846; Germans to America Index, 1850-1897; Italians to America Index, 1855-1900; Russians to America Index, 1834-1897)
www.findmypast.co.uk (Travel & Migration Records: Datasets include Outbound Passenger Lists,1890-1960. The dataset includes passenger lists in extracted from TNA series BT 27 and includes long-haul voyages to destinations outside Britain, Europe and the Mediterranean. Countries that feature strongly include Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, South Africa and the USA. Irish ports before partition in 1921 and all Northern Irish ports after partition are covered. The lists also include those travelling onwards from British ports)
www.findmypast.co.uk (Naturalizations datasets include: New England Naturalizations, 1791-1906 including Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont; Minnesota Naturalizations 1930-1988)
www.findmypast.co.uk (Passenger Lists datasets include: New York Passenger Lists & Arrivals, 1820-1957. Search over 21 million records of immigrants from England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and other countries who arrived in the port)
www.findmypast.co.uk (United States, Canadian Border Crossings, 1895-1954. The collection is made up of four collections from the National Archives and Records Administration including both indexes and passenger manifests of entries from Canada into the United States through St Albans, Vermont, between 1895 and 1954)
www.findmypast.co.uk
(United States, Transatlantic Migration. Records of migrating ancestors to Canada and the United States from England, Scotland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Germany and France. The data is extracted from a number of publications and covers the 1500s to the early 1900s)
www.russianimmigrants.org
(Russian immigrants: 19th Century Russian Immigrants to USA: A searchable database of more than 400,000 passengers who arrived in the United States between 1834 and 1897 and identified their country of origin or nationality as Russia or Russian Poles as well as Armenian, Finnish, Galician, Lithuanian, Polish, Russian and Ukrainian)
https://archive.org/details/genealogy (Internet Archive Genealogy: Free online access to digitised resources including: Passenger and Crew Vessel Lists for New York, NY 1897-1957; Passenger Lists of Vessels for Baltimore and Philadelphia Passengers arriving in the St. Albans, VT District)
www.archives.com
(Immigration records including passenger lists)
www.libertyellisfoundation.org (Ellis Island Passenger Search, 1892-1924: Free access to transcripts and original images of ship's passenger lists covering some 22 million people who entered America through Ellis Island/Port of New York. Some passengers were only visitors and some failed to settle. New legislation in the 1920s reduced immigration and Ellis Island shut in 1954. Enhanced browsing and searching of the database can be carried out at Stephen Morse's ' One Step' Search Pages)
http://aad.archives.gov/aad/series-list.jsp?cat=GP44 (Passenger Lists Including Records for Passengers Who Arrived at the Port of New York During the Irish Famine, 1846-1851)
www.worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=nara_uspassengerarrivals_italian (Records of Italians Immigrating to the United States, 1855-1900)
www.virtualjamestown.org/indentures/search_indentures.html (Registers of Servants sent to Foreign Plantations, 1654-1686: Databases covering Bristol and London and extracted from various printed sources)
www.pricegen.com/immigrantservants/search/simple.php (Immigrant Servants Database: Details of individuals who travelled to colonial America between 1607 and 1820 as indentured servants, redemptioners [a person who worked as a servant to pay for the cost of the voyage] and transported convicts. About 50 per cent of the individuals listed do not appear in Filby's Passenger and Immigration Lists Index, which is considered one of the best sources of immigrant lists. Those only suspected of being servant are excluded. Slaves and poor orphans have been filtered out. Expect to find the name, date of birth, address and occupation of servant; the colony and date of servitude; the port of departure, place of arrival, year of immigration, name of ship and length of indenture)
Vital Records
www.ancestry.co.uk (Birth, Marriage & Death Collection: Datasets include: Michigan death records, 1897-1920; Ohio 20th century Vital Records and divorce records; Virginia births and deaths, 1912-onwards; Virginia marriages, 1936-onwards; Virginia divorces, 1918-onwards)
www.ancestry.co.uk (New York State Records: New York City birth, death and marriage records, 1866-1948 in a partnership with the New York City Department of Records/Municipal Archives)
www.findmypast.co.uk (Vital records covering Arizona deaths & burials, 1881-1917; Arizona Deaths; Arizona births & christenings 1909-1917; Connecticut; District of Columbia Deaths & Burials 1840-1964; District of Columbia Marriages 1830-1921; District of Columbia Births & Baptisms 1830-1955; Idaho Births and Baptisms, 1856-1965; Iowa deaths and burials 1850-1990; Kentucky; Massachusetts; Montana; New York City Death Notices, 1835-1880; New York City Marriage Notices 1835-1880; New York State Religious Records 1716-1914 of baptisms, marriages, and deaths from dozens of New York State churches of various denominations; Ohio; Ohio Obituary Index, 1814-2013; Oregon births and baptisms 1868-1929; Pennsylvania Births & Baptisms, Deaths & Burials, Marriages and Congregational Records; Texas; Utah marriages, 1854-1935; Utah Deaths & Burials 1848-1960)
www.findmypast.co.uk
(United States Marriages. This collection contains all the United States marriage records that are currently on Findmypast including: applications, licenses, certificates, intentions to marry, registers, bonds, and affidavits. The records date from the 17th century to the 20th century. Records will continue to be added to this collection as they are obtained)
www.findmypast.co.uk
(Philadelphia Roman Catholic Parish Baptisms; Philadelphia Roman Catholic Parish Marriages. The records are from the Archdiocese of Philadelphia, covering Bucks County, Chester County, Delaware County, Montgomery County and Philadelphia County)
www.reclaimtherecords.org (Reclaim the Records. Index to New York City Marriage Applications, Affidavits, and Licenses, 1908-1929; The NYC Marriage Index, 1950-1995)
https://ok2explore.health.ok.gov
(Oklahoma State Vital Records Index. Free searchable index of births and deaths that occurred in the state of Oklahoma. Included is limited information on births occurring more than 20 years ago and deaths occurring more than 5 years ago)
http://italiangen.org (Italian Genealogical Group. This database contains an index to selected years of the Bronx, Kings, Manhattan, Richmond, and Queens County bride’s marriage records. The index covers the years from 1866 to 1937 and is not complete)
http://italiangen.org (Italian Genealogical Group. This database contains the indexes to over 1,825,000 marriages recorded by the New York City Health department for the 5 Boroughs of New York City, from 1908 to 1936, and the period 1895 to 1897 for the boroughs of Brooklyn and Manhattan. The marriage is listed only by the name of the groom)
www.rbhayes.org/main/ohio-obituary-index (Hayes Presidential Library’s Obituary Index: An index to over 3,500,000 obituaries, death and marriage notices and other sources from Ohio from the 1810s to the present day)
www.archives.com (Online access to 40 Million Vital Records)
www.archives.com (Online access to 300,000 indexed burial/cemetery records in partnership with Names In Stone)
www.familysearch.org (Historical Record Collections: Includes Catholic Parish Records, Individual State birth/baptism, marriage and death/burial registers. Datasets include: New York City Births, Marriages and Deaths, 1795-1949)
www.usgwarchives.net/pa/allegheny/death-index.htm (Marriage, deaths, and divorce indexes from Pittsburgh area newspapers, 1806-1987)  
www.usgwtombstones.org (The Tombstone Transcription Project, MI transcriptions across the US)
www.nyc.gov/html/doc/html/hart_island/hart_island.shtml (New York City Department of Correction. Hart Island ‘Potter’s Field’ burial records. The database holds transcripts for unknown or indigent people who were unable to provide for their own burial)
https://billiongraves.com (BillionGraves: Family history database for records and images from the world's cemeteries. Members of the public can collect photos of headstones in a local cemetery with iOS, Android and Windows mobile apps and then upload the photo and headstone transcription. BillionGraves records are also available to search at FamilySearch)
www.findmypast.co.uk
(United States Billion Graves Index. Are your ancestors buried in the United States? Have you been unable to locate precisely where they were buried? Search this extensive record set to find the exact location of their burial as well as their birth and death dates)
Military
www.familysearch.org (Historical Record Collections: Collections include Probate & Court records [including New York Probate Records, 1629-1971], military records, naturalization records, passenger lists)
www.findmypast.co.uk (Military Service Records. Datasets include: WWII Enlistment Records. This collection includes more than 8.7 million records of men and women who enlisted to serve in the United States Army during World War II; U.S. Civil War Medal of Honor, 1861-1865; U.S. Civil War Soldiers, 1861-1865; U.S. World War I Draft Registration Cards,1917-1918; US Civil War Pension Files Index 1861-1934; United States Army Enlistments, 1798-1914)
www.ancestry.co.uk (Military Records. Datasets include: U.S. World War II Army Enlistment Records, 1938-1946; U.S. WWII Draft Cards Young Men, 1940-1947; U.S. Civil War Soldiers, 1861-1865 U.S. Veterans Gravesites, ca.1775-2006)
http://aad.archives.gov/aad (U.S. National Archives and Records Administration: Access to Archival Databases. Databases include: World War II Army Enlistment Records, 1938-1946; Records of World War II Prisoners of War, 1942-1947)
www.archives.com
(Military Personnel Records)
www.amervets.com (The American War Library Military/Veteran/Military Family Member Database: Over 72 million Military Listings from Pre-Revolutionary War to the Present)
www.ww2enlistment.org (World War 2 U.S. Army Enlistment Archive)
www.familyrelatives.com (US Civil War Roll of Honor 1861-1865)
Land and Property
www.glorecords.blm.gov (The Official Federal Land Records Site: Federal land title records issued between 1820 and 1908)
www.historygeo.com (HistoryGeo.com: First Landowners Project: Interactive map containing over 12.3 million landowners among 30 states including all 29 of the public land states in the Continental U.S., plus Texas. The Antique Maps Collection contains hundreds of thousands of indexed landowners from a constantly expanding collection of nearly 4000 maps from various sources and time periods)
Directories
http://cdm.bostonathenaeum.org/cdm/landingpage/collection/p16057coll32 (Boston Athenæum: Digital Collections: The Boston Directory, 1789 to 1900)
www.evendon.net/PGHLookups/HomePage.shtml (Digitised directories, censuses, alumni directories military records and other reference books from cities including include Baltimore, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, New York and Pittsburgh)
http://directme.nypl.org (New York Public Library: New York City Telephone Directories Online, 1940 with guidance on using the directory to assist with searches of the 1940 federal census)
www.bklynlibrary.org/brooklyncollection/collections (Brooklyn Collection: Brooklyn Public Library: Digitized City Directories, 1856-1908; Digitized City Directories, 1909-1967. The collection includes Brooklyn city and business directories and New York City Classified Telephone Directories)
www.digitalnc.org/collections/north-carolina-city-directories
(North Carolina City Directories, 1860-1963. Online access to more than 900 city directories from different cities and towns across North Carolina counties)
www.myheritage.com/research/collection-90100/compilation-of-published-sources (MyHeritage: Compilation of Published Sources. This collection includes a compilation of thousands of published books ranging from family, local and military histories, city and county directories, school, university and hospital reports, church and congregational minutes and much more. All records include images of the book's pages)
Maps and Photos
www.oldnyc.org (OldNYC: Mapping historical photos from the New York Public Library: This site provides an alternative way of browsing the NYPL's Photographic Views of New York City, 1870s-1970s collection)
http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/maps/TopoView (U.S. Geological Survey: Historical Topographic Map Collection: Digital repository 1:250,000 scale and larger maps printed between 1884  and 2006. Currently, there are more than 178,000 maps in the HTMC)
www.nyc.gov/html/records/html/taxphotos/home.shtml (Tax Photographs: Between 1939 and 1941, and again in the mid-1980s, the city photographed every house and building in the five boroughs. Photographic prints of these images can be ordered online)
www.nyc.gov/html/records/html/gallery/home.shtml (New York City Municipal Archives Gallery. The Online Gallery provides free and open research access to over 800,000 items digitized from the Municipal Archives’ collections, including photographs, maps, motion-pictures and audio recordings)
www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/americas (The National Archives: Americas Through a Lens: Colonial Office Photographic Collection: View hundreds of Americas photos from the CO 1069 collection)
http://dsl.richmond.edu/historicalatlas (Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States: Digital access to Charles O. Paullin’s Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States, first published in 1932. The atlas contains nearly 700 maps covering seemingly every facet of the country’s social, economic and political life including presidential voting, population demographics and crop production)
http://publications.newberry.org/ahcbp/index.html (Scholl Center for American History and Culture: Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. The Atlas presents in maps and text complete data about the creation and all subsequent changes in the size, shape, and location of every county in the fifty United States and the District of Columbia)
http://historicalmaps.arcgis.com/usgs (USGS Historical Topographic Map Explorer: The site gives users access to more than 178,000 of the USGS's maps dating back to 1884, also making them easily searchable by city)
www.loc.gov/collections/sanborn-maps/about-this-collection (Library of Congress: Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps Online: Searchable database with access to digital images from 3000 cities of the fire insurance maps published by the Sanborn Map Company housed in the collections of the Geography and Map Division. The collection can be searched using the search box at the top of the page)
www.nypl.org/collections/nypl-recommendations/guides/fire-topo-property-maps (New York Public Library: NYC Fire Insurance, Topographic and Property Maps. Access to nearly 9,000 digitized pages from 162 atlases documenting New York City's changing geography and built environment. The majority of these maps are fire insurance)
www.nypl.org/blog/2014/03/28/open-access-maps
(New York Public Library: The Lionel Pincus & Princess Firyal Map Division. Online access to more than 20,000 cartographic works as high resolution downloads, mostly covering the US, but also historical Europe. The website is a parallel snapshot of all maps currently available on the Digital Gallery and can be viewed through the New York Public Library’s Digital Collections page)
Other
www.familysearch.org (Historical Record Collections: Collections include Probate & Court records [including New York Probate Records, 1629-1971], military records, naturalization records, passenger lists)
http://colonial.chadwyck.co.uk/marketing/index.jsp (Scanned documents from the Colonial State Papers)
www.british-history.ac.uk/catalogue.aspx?type=3&gid=123 (Transcribed and searchable entries from the Calendar of State Papers Colonial, America and West Indies)
www.reclaimtherecords.org
(Reclaim the Records. List of Registered Voters in New York City, 1924)
www.ancestry.co.uk (New York, Discharges of Convicts, 1882-1915; New York, Executive Orders for Commutations, Pardons, Restorations and Respites, 1845-1931; New York, Governor's Registers of Commitments to Prisons, 1842-1908; New York, Prisoners Received at Newgate State Prison, 1797-1810)
www.ancestry.co.uk
(U.S. Wills and Probates. The dataset contains more than 170 million pages from the largest collection of wills and probate records in the United States from all 50 states covering the years from 1668 to 2005)
www.usgenweb.org (USGenWeb Project: Free genealogy websites for genealogical research in every county and every state of the United States)
www.familysearch.org/eng/default.asp?page=home/welcome/site_resources.asp%3FwhichResourcePage=Jewish (FamilySearch.org - The Jewish Family History Resources: Includes the Knowles Collection which contains information on more than 300,000 Jews from the Americas, British Isles, Caribbean, Europe, the Orient and Africa. Building on the work of the late Isobel Mordy who compiled any information she could about the Jewish people from many sources, the collection links individuals into family groups. More names are added continuously. The collection can be searched on the FamilySearch Community Trees Web site and is available as Gedcom files that can be viewed and edited with the free PAF genealogy software)
http://histfam.familysearch.org (FamilySearch Community Trees: Pedigrees and family names extracted from a variety of sources)
www.archives.gov/digitization (Digitization at the National Archives: Project to digitize selected records from the National Archives. A list of all the documents that have been digitized and placed online by commercial partners, Ancestry.com and Fold3.com [formerly Footnote.com] is available at www.archives.gov/digitization/digitized-by-partners.html)

CD Roms

Appleby, John & Banton, Mandy & Kupperman, Karen (eds). Calendar of State Papers, Colonial: Routledge: 2000
S & N Genealogy Supplies (Hotten’s Original Lists of Persons of Quality Emigrating to America, 1600-1700)
Genealogical Publishing Company (Immigration/Passenger Lists/Naturalizations. Various titles including The Complete Book of Emigrants by Peter Wilson Coldham and The Collected Works of David Dobson)
www.genealogy.com (Passenger and Immigration Records)