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Royal Navy/Royal Marines - Muster & Pay Books (Service Records) - Ratings & Officers (Military)

Nature of Source

Records held on sailors or ratings detailing the ships they served on and payments made to them. The lists were taken regularly each month. The levels of recruitment fluctuated depending on the demand for personnel especially in times of conflict. Paybooks should also be looked at as they can provide information such as age and place of birth which might be missing from the muster. They might also contain an alphabetical surname index of the crew which can greatly assist finding an individual.

For the 18th century and much of the 19th century, ratings only signed up for a commission on a particular ship and was only employed for the duration of the commission. Therefore, naval rating's records are rarely indexed by name with no individual service records kept on a sailor. It is therefore imperative that the name of the ship is known to conduct research on a rating. After Continuous Service was introduced in 1853, centralised records were kept on individual ratings which established a professional structure to the Navy.

The following sources could be used to establish the name of the ship served on:
Seamen's Wills in series ADM 48; wills proved at the Prerogative Court of Canterbury which was used as the probate court for sailors who died abroad or at sea (see Royal Navy/Royal Marines - Casualty Records for more details)
Certificates of Service (see Royal Navy/Royal Marines - Certificates of Service - Ratings & Officers)
The Trafalgar Ancestors project aims to list all those who served in the Battle of Trafalgar and will provide amongst other things the name of the ship served on; parish marriage registers might record the name of the ship served on
Pension records especially ADM 73/1-35, Greenwich Hospital Pensioners' Admission Papers which are indexed by surname (see Royal Navy/Royal Marines - Pensions to the Wounded, Retired, Widows & Orphans - Ratings & Officers.

The name of the ship and an approximate date must be known to conduct a search. Look for the monthly and general musters. Pay books follow a similar structure to the musters. Much information was copied from one to another and are consequently difficult to use. As the records note the previous ships served on, it is possible to track a sailor's career backwards and forwards using the musters and pay books. Use the ship's captain's and master logs in ADM 51, ADM 52, ADM 53, ADM 54 to track the progress of a ship. Also look for description books from about 1800 which can be found with the ship's musters. These can provide the sailor's date of entry and discharge, marital status and occupation.

Royal Navy ex-servicemen suffering mental illness were treated at Hoxton House in London until 1818 and thereafter at the Royal Hospital Haslar near Gosport, Hampshire until 1854. The records can be found at The National Archives in series ADM 102/415-20 for Hoxton House and in series ADM 102/356-73 for Haslar.

See also
Certificates of Service - Ratings & Officers
Continuous Service Engagement Books, (Service Records) Ratings
Registers of Seamen's Services (Service Records), Ratings

Where Found

The National Archives (ADM 36-39 & ADM 41, Ships' Musters; ADM 115, Ship Record and Establishment Books; ADM 117, Ships' Ledgers; ADM 119, Coastguard and Revenue Cruisers Ships' Musters; ADM 102, Hospital Ships' Musters; ADM 31-ADM 35, Ships' Pay Books)

The names of ships can be searched at the TNA Discovery catalogue to determine the availability of Musters and Pay Books and other material. First select advanced search from the Discovery home page and enter name of the vessel being searched without the prefix 'HMS'. In the ‘Search for or within references’ box type ADM and then scroll down to ‘Held by’ and click ‘Search The National Archives’. Finally click the search button. Further filters appear on the search results screen.
Fleet Air Arm Museum
(The museum hold material relating to the Royal Naval Air Service and the Fleet Air Arm from official and private sources including service records, squadron line books, aircraft accident records, air stations, operations, ships and equipment. The museum also has custody of Royal Navy & Royal Marines Service Documents)
Royal Naval Museum (The museum houses a collection of naval related books, manuscripts and images, including the collections from the Admiralty Library formerly housed in London. The museum library offers a number of resources for those researching family histories with a number of Information Sheets available online including a guide to naval rankings. The Online Catalogue provides access to the Manuscript, Oral History, Photographic and WRNS collections)

Period Covered

1667 - 1878

Genealogical Value

Name, age at time of entry (after 1764), place of birth; Crew Number which was issued to the seaman for the time served on each ship and can be useful because crews are listed in numerical order; Date entered the ship and date first mustered; Details of previous ships served on and transfers; Details of hospital treatment; Discharge and date of death with the letter 'D' signifying Discharge which could include transfer to another ship, 'R' signifying Desertion (Run) and 'DD' Discharged Dead; Career and rank, either Landsmen abbreviated to 'LM', Ordinary Seaman abbreviated to 'ord' or 'ordy' and Able-Bodied Seaman abbreviated to 'ab' or 'AM' or 'able'.

Further References

Addis, C.P. The Men Who Fought with Nelson in HMS Victory at Trafalgar: Nelson Society, 1988


Adkins, Roy & Lesley. Jack Tar: The Extraordinary Lives of Ordinary Seamen in Nelson's Navy: Abacus, 2009


Bevan, Amanda. Tracing Your Ancestors in the National Archives: The National Archives, 2006


Blank, Dr. Stuart. Researching British Military History on the Internet: Alwyn Enterprises, 2007


Brooks, Richard & Little, Matthew. Tracing Your Royal Marine Ancestors: Pen and Sword Books, 2008


Burt, R.A. British Battleships of World War One: Seaforth, 2012


Clarke, John D. Men of HMS Victory at Trafalgar Including the Muster Roll, Casualties, Rewards and Medals: Naval & Military Press 2002


Cock, Randolph & Rodgers N.A.M. A Guide to the Naval Records in The National Archives of the UK: Institute of Historical Research, 2006


Coleman, E.C. Rank and Rate: Insignia of Royal Naval Ratings, WRNS, Royal Marines, QARNNS and Auxiliaries: Crowood Press, 2012


Divall, Ken. My Ancestor was a Royal Marine: Society of Genealogists, 2008


Fenton, Roy & Briody, Nuala & Macdonald, Mike. Maritime Information : A Guide to Libraries and Sources of Information in the United Kingdom: Maritime Information Association, 2004


Fowler, Simon. A Guide to Military History on the Internet: Pen & Sword, 2007


Fowler, Simon. Tracing Your Naval Ancestors: A Guide for Family Historians: Pen & Sword Books, 2011


Gregson, Keith. Nelson's Navy 1793-1815: Federation of Family History Societies, 2006


Hurst, Norman (comp). Naval Chronicle, 1799-1818: Index to Births, Marriages and Deaths: N. Hurst, 1989


Ingham, Mary. Tracing Your Service Women Ancestors: A Guide for Family Historians: Pen and Sword Books 2012


Lavery, Brian. Life in Nelson's Navy: The History Press, 2011


Lavery, Brian. Empire of the Seas: The Remarkable Story of How the Navy Forged the Modern World: Conway, 2012


Lavery, Brian. Nelson's Navy: The Ships, Men and Organisation, 1793-1815: Conway, 2013


Mackenzie, Robert Holden. The Trafalgar Roll: The Ships and the Officers: Chatham, 2004


Morris, Stuart. Dorset, The Royal Navy: Dovecote Press, 2011  

Pappalardo, Bruno. Tracing Your Naval Ancestors: PRO, 2003


Pappalardo, Bruno. Royal Navy Lieutenants' Passing Certificates 1691-1902: List & Index Society, 2001 (Available in The National Archives reading rooms)


Pope, Dudley.Life In Nelson's Navy: Chatham Publishing, 1997


Prysor, Glyn. Citizen Sailors: The Royal Navy In the Second World War: Penguin Books, 2012


Rodger, N.A.M. Naval Records for Genealogists: PRO, 1998


Royal Marines Historical Society. A Register of Royal Marine Deaths, 1914-19: 1991


Spencer, William. Family History in the Wars: The National Archives, 2007


Storey, Neil. Military Photographs and How to Date Them: Countryside Books, 2009


Tracing Your Family History. Royal Navy: Imperial War Museum, 2006


Tracy, Nicholas. The Naval Chronicle: The Contemporary Record of the Royal Navy at War, vols 1-5: various publishers


Usher, George. Dictionary of British Military History: A&C Black Publishers, 2006


Waller, Ian. My Ancestor was in the Royal Navy: Society of Genealogists, 2014


Watts, Christopher T. and Watts, Michael J. Tracing Births, Deaths and Marriages at Sea: Society of Genealogists, 2004


Willis, Sam. In the Hour of Victory: The Royal Navy At War in the Age Nelson: Atlantic Books, 2014


Wills, Simon. Tracing Your Seafaring Ancestors: A Guide to Maritime Photographs for Family Historians: Pen and Sword Books, 2016

Wilson, Alastair. A Biographical Dictionary of The Twentieth Century Royal Navy: Volume 1 Admirals of the Fleet and Admirals: Seaforth, 2013


TNA Research Guides

Websites (British Maritime History: Background to researching mariners: Mercantile & Naval) (TNA Guide: Looking for a subject, Military history) (TNA Guide: Looking for a person, Navy) (Officer Ranks in the Royal Navy: The Naval Hierarchy Explained) (UK Military Family History Online: Links to web sites with online data and information to aid in military family history research) (GENUKI Military guide with useful links) (National Maritime Museum: The Royal Navy: Guides to tracing people, ship records, administrative records, naval gunnery etc) (Imperial War Museum, Your History, Family History: Royal Navy: Information sheets include Tracing Royal Navy Ancestry, Naval Service Records and List of Abbreviations) (British Military Records Part 2: The Royal Navy, by Fawne Stratford-Devai) (British Library Guide: Service lists for the Army, Navy and Air Force) (Naval enthusiast site that contains a number of indexes including extracts from the Navy Lists, ship's photos & other information) (Information on battles, actions, medals, convoys, warships, merchant ships and ship losses, including photos of lost soldiers) (Online exhibition to commemorate the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805) (Navy Records Society: Publisher of original documents on the Royal Navy) (Naval Dockyards Society)

Online Databases (British Royal Navy, Ships' Musters, 1739-1861. This collection of muster rolls is an excellent resource for genealogists to find seafaring ancestors in the Royal Navy before service records began in 1853. The records are from TNA series ADM 36, ADM 37, and ADM 38 series and do not include every muster from the series) (British Royal Naval Reserve 1899-1930. The dataset consists of over 81,000 service cards of officers and ratings who served with the RNR extracted from TNA series ADM 337 and ADM 240) (British Royal Navy & Royal Marines Service and Pension Records, 1704-1919. The dataset consists of an assortment of documents kept by the Greenwich Hospital and the Royal Hospital Chelsea to record the details of Greenwich Pensioners) (Naval Biographical Database: Biographical information on Royal Navy commission, warrant and yard officers extracted from a variety of sources, starting from 1660. The database also identifies volunteers who supported the Navy as well as a complete ship listing including places. Expect to find the person's name, rank, entry and discharge date, pension award, date of death and family members)
TNA Online Collections (Wills of Royal Naval Seamen: A collection of around 20,000 wills made by seamen of the Royal Navy 1786-1882. TNA Online Collections is produced by The National Archives and contains online access to indexes, transcriptions and digital images of some of the TNA's most important holdings. Searches are free but a fee is levied for each downloaded item. However downloads are free if used at TNA or the Society of Genealogists) (UK, Naval Officer and Rating Service Records, 1802-1919. British officers and ratings [non-commissioned seamen] in the Royal Navy were awarded pensions after 20 years’ service. This collection includes records that documented that service, including musters and pay registers, which were compiled by the Navy Pay Office) (British Royal Navy Allotment Declarations, 1795-1852. Over 485,000 records held in TNA series ADM 27 showing details of seamen applications for allotments) (Forces War Records: Military records of over two million British Armed Forces personnel cross matched with over 4000 Regiments including Rolls of Honour, Crimean and Boer War Databases, Medal Rolls and Casualties Lists. The site also has a facility to access information on specific units or bases including regiments, ships, airfields)
(Navy Records Online is an online archive of miscellaneous British naval records including charts, portraits, cartoons, logs, letters, diaries, battle plans, sketchbooks, photograph albums and videos) (Dartmouth Royal Naval College Staff 1928 including officers, masters and staff) (Armed forces deaths 1796-1994 and GRO Naval war deaths WWI and WWII) (Casualty Lists of the Royal And Dominion Navies 1889-2009, researched and compiled by Don Kindell) (Trafalgar Ancestors: Names and details of those that served in the Battle of Trafalgar compiled by Bruno Pappalardo) (The Complete Navy List of the Napoleonic Wars, 1793-1815: Transcribed names and details of more than 11,000 commissioned officers who served in the Royal Navy from 1787 onwards, up to those who entered the service before 1817) (The Ayshford Trafalgar Roll: Names and details of over 21,000 seamen and marines who fought at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805) (Transcripts of the ADM 26 registers which allowed ratings/sailors and not officers to remit part of their pay to a third party, usually a relative, 1795-1851)

CD Roms

Archive CD Books (1861 Census - Royal Navy at Sea & Ports Abroad)
S & N Genealogy Supplies (Royal Navy Ships at Sea and in Ports Abroad in the 1871 Census and 1901 census) (The Complete Navy List of the Napoleonic Wars, 1793-1815: Transcribed names and details of more than 11,000 commissioned officers who served in the Royal Navy from 1787 onwards, up to those who entered the service before 1817) (The Ayshford Trafalgar Roll: Names and details of over 21,000 seamen and marines who fought at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805)
The Parish Register Transcription Society (Surrey Recruitment Register, 1908-1933 first published by the Surrey History Trust)
Manchester and Lancashire FHS (Oldham Chronicle Index of Service Personnel 1914-1919: Details of service personnel mentioned in the Saturday editions of the Oldham Chronicle1914 to the end of December 1919)